The problems associated with contaminated dredged material disposal (basically lack of disposal sites and potential adverse environmental impacts) have become major issues in many industrialized and developing countries. The sediment removed for environmental reasons is obviously contaminated, but in many cases the sediment removed during normal maintenance dredging of waterways and harbours also contains a wide range of potentially toxic substances. In the Netherlands for instance, out of the 50 million m3 of dredged material produced annually during normal maintenance dredging work 20 million m is contaminated to such a degree that its dispersion into the environment without measures to impede contaminant release is unacceptable (Vellinga, 1989). This paper gives a review of the disposal and treatment options currently in use or considered to have the potential for practical use in the near future with an emphasis on land disposal. It briefly discusses the main contaminant release pathways, the governing processes and the state-of-the-art methodology, used to assess potential environmental impacts.