Pandemic programming: How COVID-19 affects software developers and how their organizations can help
Ralph, Paul (Dalhousie University)
Baltes, Sebastian (University of Adelaide)
Adisaputri, Gianisa (Dalhousie University)
Torkar, Richard (Chalmers University of Technology; University of Gothenburg; Stellenbosch Institute for Advanced Study)
Kovalenko, V.V. (JetBrains)
Kalinowski, Marcos (Pontifical Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro)
Novielli, Nicole (University of Bari Aldo Moro)
Yoo, Shin (Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology)
Devroey, Xavier (TU Delft Software Engineering)
Tan, Xin (Peking University)
Zhou, Minghui (Peking University)
Turhan, Burak (Monash University; University of Oulu)
Hoda, Rashina (Monash University)
Hata, Hideaki (Nara Institute of Science and Technology)
Robles, Gregorio (Universidad Rey Juan Carlos)
Milani Fard, Amin (New York Institute of Technology)
Alkadhi, Rana (King Saud University)
Context: As a novel coronavirus swept the world in early 2020, thousands of software developers began working from home. Many did so on short notice, under difficult and stressful conditions.
Objective: This study investigates the effects of the pandemic on developers’ wellbeing and productivity.
Method: A questionnaire survey was created mainly from existing, validated scales and translated into 12 languages. The data was analyzed using non-parametric inferential statistics and structural equation modeling.
Results: The questionnaire received 2225 usable responses from 53 countries. Factor analysis supported the validity of the scales and the structural model achieved a good fit (CFI = 0.961, RMSEA = 0.051, SRMR = 0.067). Confirmatory results include: (1) the pandemic has had a negative effect on developers’ wellbeing and productivity; (2) productivity and wellbeing are closely related; (3) disaster preparedness, fear related to the pandemic and home office ergonomics all affect wellbeing or productivity. Exploratory analysis suggests that: (1) women, parents and people with disabilities may be disproportionately affected; (2) different people need different kinds of support.
Conclusions: To improve employee productivity, software companies should focus on maximizing employee wellbeing and improving the ergonomics of employees’ home offices. Women, parents and disabled persons may require extra support.
To reference this document use:
Structural equation modeling
Work from home
Empirical Software Engineering, 25 (6), 4927-4961
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© 2020 Paul Ralph, Sebastian Baltes, Gianisa Adisaputri, Richard Torkar, V.V. Kovalenko, Marcos Kalinowski, Nicole Novielli, Shin Yoo, Xavier Devroey, Xin Tan, Minghui Zhou, Burak Turhan, Rashina Hoda, Hideaki Hata, Gregorio Robles, Amin Milani Fard, Rana Alkadhi