Unraveling electron liberation from Bi2+ for designing Bi3+-based afterglow phosphor for anti-counterfeiting and flexible X-ray imaging
Lyu, T. (TU Delft RST/Luminescence Materials)
Dorenbos, P. (TU Delft RST/Luminescence Materials)
Li, Canhua (Huaqiao University, Xiamen)
Li, Silei (Huaqiao University, Xiamen)
Xu, Jian (National Institute for Materials Science)
Wei, Zhanhua (Huaqiao University, Xiamen)
It is challenging to rational design persistent luminescence and storage phosphors with high storage capacity of electrons and holes after X-ray charging. Such phosphors have potential applications in anti-counterfeiting and X-ray imaging. Here we have combined vacuum referred binding energy diagram (VRBE) construction, photoluminescence spectroscopy, and thermoluminescence to study the trapping processes of charge carriers in NaYGeO4. In NaYGeO4:0.004Bi3+ and NaYGeO4:0.004Bi3+,0.005Ln3+ (Ln = Tb or Pr), Bi3+ appears to act as a shallow electron trap, while Bi3+ and Ln3+ act as deep hole trapping and recombination centres. We will show how to experimentally determine the VRBE in the Bi2+ 2P1/2 ground state in NaYGeO4 and NaLuGeO4 by thermoluminescence study. The electron trap depth produced by Bi3+ codopant in NaLu1-xYxGeO4:0.003Bi3+,0.008 Tb3+ can be adjusted, by increasing x, resulting in conduction band engineering. By combining Bi3+ as an electron trap and Bi3+ and Tb3+ as the hole traps, excellent X-ray charged afterglow phosphors were developed. The integrated TL intensity of the optimized NaYGeO4:0.004Bi3+ and NaYGeO4:0.003Bi3+,0.008Tb3+ after exposure to X-rays is about 4.5 and 1.1 times higher than that of the state-of-the-art BaFBr(I):Eu2+ storage phosphor. Intense initial Tb3+ 4f → 4f afterglow appears in NaYGeO4:0.003Bi3+,0.008Tb3+ and more than 40 h afterglow is measurable in NaYGeO4:0.004Bi3+ and NaYGeO4:0.003Bi3+, 0.008 Tb3+ after X-ray charging. We will show proof-of-concept anti-counterfeiting and X-ray imaging applications by using the developed afterglow phosphors and CsPbI3 quantum dots. This work not only provides experimental evidence on the VRBE in the Bi2+ 2P1/2 ground state in NaYGeO4, but also shows how to design and develop good afterglow phosphors for anti-counterfeiting and X-ray imaging by deeply studying and controlling the trapping processes of charge carriers in bismuth and/or lanthanides doped inorganic compounds.
To reference this document use:
Electron liberation from Bi
Electron trap depth engineering
Chemical Engineering Journal, 435
Green Open Access added to TU Delft Institutional Repository ‘You share, we take care!’ – Taverne project https://www.openaccess.nl/en/you-share-we-take-care Otherwise as indicated in the copyright section: the publisher is the copyright holder of this work and the author uses the Dutch legislation to make this work public.
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© 2022 T. Lyu, P. Dorenbos, Canhua Li, Silei Li, Jian Xu, Zhanhua Wei