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van der El, K. (author), Pool, D.M. (author), van Paassen, M.M. (author), Mulder, Max (author)
The 1960s crossover model is widely applied to quantitatively predict a human controller's (HC's) manual control behavior. Unfortunately, the theory captures only compensatory tracking behavior and, as such, a limited range of real-world manual control tasks. This article finalizes recent advances in manual control theory toward more general...
journal article 2020
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Landman, H.M. (author), Groen, Eric L. (author), van Paassen, M.M. (author), Bronkhorst, Adelbert W. (author), Mulder, Max (author)
Previous studies show that pilots sometimes make roll reversal errors (RREs) when responding to the aircraft bank angle shown on the attitude indicator (AI). This is suggestive of a perceptual ambiguity in the AI. In the current study, we investigated whether expectation contributes to such misperception. Twenty nonpilots performed tasks in a...
journal article 2020
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Scholten, Pepijn (author), van Paassen, M.M. (author), Mulder, Max (author)
A variable stability in-flight simulator has the capabilities to change the response of an aircraft in-flight, often without changing the physical properties of the aircraft. The ability to adjust the aircraft response characteristics and handling qualities has various purposes, such as pilot training, control logic development and handling...
conference paper 2020
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van Geel, Alexander (author), Borst, C. (author), van Paassen, M.M. (author), Mulder, Max (author)
Loss of control is the largest contributor to the yearly aviation death toll, with energy mismanagement in low-energy conditions as one of its main causal factors. This has led to a large emphasis from both scientific and aviation safety communities on the prevention of aircraft upset conditions. Changes in aircraft configuration largely impact...
conference paper 2020
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de Rooij, G. (author), Van Baelen, D. (author), Borst, C. (author), van Paassen, M.M. (author), Mulder, Max (author)
This paper describes the design and evaluation of a visual display in supplementing haptic feedback on the side stick as a way to communicate flight envelope boundaries to pilots. The design adds indications for the limits in airspeed, load factor, angle of attack and angle of bank to a standard Airbus primary flight display (PFD). The...
conference paper 2020
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Van Baelen, D. (author), Ellerbroek, J. (author), van Paassen, M.M. (author), Abbink, D.A. (author), Mulder, Max (author)
Modern aircraft use a variety of fly-by-wire control devices and combine these with a flight envelope protection system to limit pilot control inputs when approaching the aircraft limits. The current research project aims to increase pilot awareness of such a protection system through the use of force feedback on the control device, i.e.,...
conference paper 2020
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Piessens, Tom (author), van Paassen, M.M. (author), Mulder, Max (author)
Teleoperation by definition means a deprivation of the teleoperator's senses, which can pose a handicap when operating, e.g., an UAV, in an unknown, perhaps even dynamic environment. Noticing moving obstacles in such a situation can prove to be quite difficult and the UAV runs the risk of colliding with them. Previous work designed a shared...
conference paper 2020
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van Baelen, D. (author), Ellerbroek, J. (author), van Paassen, M.M. (author), Mulder, Max (author)
Several modern aircraft use a passive control manipulator: a spring–damper system that generates command signals to the flight control computers in combination with a flight envelope protection system that limits pilot inputs when approaching the aircraft limits. This research project aims to increase pilot awareness of this protection system...
journal article 2020
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da Silva Rosa, David (author), Ernst, Johanne (author), Borst, C. (author), van Paassen, M.M. (author), Mulder, Max (author)
Helicopter pilot performance in degraded visual conditions may be improved through sensor fusion and an augmented reality display. A simulator experiment with 12 participants was done to test the effect of synthetic terrain grid cell size and helicopter heave dynamics on task performance and control behaviour in a terrain-following hill-climb...
conference paper 2020
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Landman, H.M. (author), van Middelaar, Sophie H. (author), Groen, Eric L. (author), van Paassen, M.M. (author), Bronkhorst, Adelbert W. (author), Mulder, Max (author)
Background: Mnemonic-type startle and surprise procedures were previously proposed to help pilots cope with startle and surprise in-flight, but effects on performance after procedure execution have not yet been investigated. Objective: Thus, we tested the effectiveness a new mnemonic-type procedure in a moving-base simulator with a non-linear...
journal article 2020
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Fu, W. (author), van Paassen, M.M. (author), Mulder, Max (author)
Limitations of a haptic device can cause distortions of the force feedback it presents. Just-noticeable difference (JND) in system dynamics is important for creating transparent haptic interaction. Based on the previous work, this article presents a unified model that extends the existing JND rule. Our approach projects the JNDs in the...
journal article 2020
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Borst, C. (author), Visser, Roeland M. (author), van Paassen, M.M. (author), Mulder, Max (author)
In many work domains, the push toward higher levels of automation raises the concern of diminishing human expertise. Ecological interfaces could help operators in retaining and potentially even in acquiring expertise as they are hypothesized to lead to a deeper understanding of the work domain. This study explores the short-term impact of...
journal article 2019
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Ten Brink, D. S.A. (author), Klomp, R.E. (author), Borst, C. (author), van Paassen, M.M. (author), Mulder, M. (author)
In the near future, air traffic controllers are expected to adhere to stringent time and position constraints in controlling traffic. For this new task, new decision-support tools are required which include higher levels of automation, whilst letting humans remain to be the ultimate responsible for the safety of operations. In previous...
conference paper 2019
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Mulder, M. (author), Yang, L. (author), Borst, C. (author), van Paassen, M.M. (author)
Future Air Traffic Management concepts will require air traffic controllers to move from a tactical to a strategic way of operation. This paper evaluates two novel concepts which support controllers to perform four-dimensional trajectory management in a contingency situation. The Travel Space Representation and Time-Space Diagram are both...
conference paper 2019
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Nagaraj, R. (author), Klomp, R.E. (author), Borst, C. (author), van Paassen, M.M. (author), Mulder, M. (author)
Future Air Traffic Management is expected to shift towards four dimensional trajectory (4DT) management, requiring new decision support tools for air traffic controllers to meet stringent time and position constraints. In previous work, a prototype human-machine interface has been developed for 4D trajectory manipulations of single aircraft....
conference paper 2019
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Reitsma, J.P. (author), van Paassen, M.M. (author), Mulder, M. (author)
Reducing high workload levels are a major challenge to enable single pilot operations. Where the pilot is currently supported with many automated systems, the role of mission planner is relatively unsupported, i.e., the flight crew is required to integrate and combine information from various sources to extract the implications on the missions’...
conference paper 2019
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Reitsma, J.P. (author), van Paassen, M.M. (author), Mulder, M. (author)
The glass cockpit and EFB enable new ways of information presentation and interaction on the flight deck of modern commercial jets. This information supports crews in flight plan management, which essentially entails evaluating the plan against (ever-changing) flight constraints and, if necessary, modifying it. Flight constraints emerge from the...
conference paper 2019
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Piessens, T. (author), van Paassen, M.M. (author), Mulder, M. (author)
Impoverished sensory input makes tele-operation of Unmanned Autonomous Vehicles a difficult task. Automation support can provide assistance to the operator, but may also produce automation surprise and a risk of loss of situation awareness, when the human operator fails to notice the actions of automation in high-workload situations. Previous...
conference paper 2019
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Landman, A. (author), Groen, E.L. (author), Frank, M. (author), Steinhardt, G. (author), van Paassen, M.M. (author), Bronkhorst, A.W. (author), Mulder, M. (author)
Aviation safety organizations have recommended that airline pilots are trained for startle and surprise. However, little information is available on useful training interventions. Therefore, a training intervention trial was executed during airline recurrent simulator training. The method consisted of a slow visual scan from the side-window,...
conference paper 2019
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Fu, W. (author), van Paassen, M.M. (author), Mulder, M. (author)
This study revisits the active manipulator developed for manual aircraft control. The active manipulator sends the force applied by the pilot to the aircraft while feeding back the aircraft rotational velocity bymeans of its deflection angle. We find that the activemanipulator, in comparison with the conventional passive manipulator, greatly...
conference paper 2019
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