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Stress in sputter-deposited Cr films: Influence of Ar pressure Grachev, S.Y. (author), Tichelaar, F.D. (author), Janssen, G.C.A.M. (author) We studied the tensile stress and grain-width evolution in sputter-deposited Cr films with thickness from 20?nm to 2.7??m. Films were deposited in an industrial Hauzer 750 physical vapor deposition machine at 50–80?°C. The films exhibited a columnar microstructure. A power law behavior of the tensile stress as well as of the average grain width... journal article 2005

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Stress in hard metal films Janssen, G.C.A.M. (author), Kamminga, J.D. (author) In the absence of thermal stress, tensile stress in hard metal films is caused by grain boundary shrinkage and compressive stress is caused by ion peening. It is shown that the two contributions are additive. Moreover tensile stress generated at the grain boundaries does not relax by ion bombardment. In polycrystalline hard metal films the grain... journal article 2004

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Tensile stress in hard metal films Janssen, G.C.A.M. (author), Dammers, A.J. (author), Sivel, V.G.M. (author), Wang, W.R. (author) Thin films on substrates are usually in a stressed state. An important, but trivial, contribution to that stress stems from the difference in thermal expansion coefficient of substrate and film. Much more interesting are the intrinsic stresses, resulting from the growth and/or microstructure of the film. Intrinsic compressive stress was... journal article 2003