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departmentresearch group programmeprojectcoordinates)uuid:7754d39fb7444421b07bbed6c58a62cfDhttp://resolver.tudelft.nl/uuid:7754d39fb7444421b07bbed6c58a62cfApplying the Building with Nature philosophy for sustainable port development: Opportunity study for the PortIndustrial Complex Kuala Tanjung, Indonesiadvan der Hoek, Alexander (TU Delft Civil Engineering and Geosciences; TU Delft Hydraulic Engineering)van Koningsveld, Mark (mentor); Taneja, Poonam (graduation committee); van Wesenbeeck, Bregje (graduation committee); Broos, EJ (graduation committee); Wolf, R. (graduation committee); Kleinhout, K. (graduation committee); Delft University of Technology (degree granting institution)The aim of the Building with Nature (BwN) design philosophy is to improve on a traditional approach for infrastructural projects by utilising natural processes to create benefits for society and nature. In a fastchanging world where climate action is becoming increasingly important, there is need for an innovative approach in large infrastructural projects where nature is not considered as an obstacle, but stimulated and used in a sustainable way. The BwN design philosophy offers the opportunity to realize this improvement. This research first aimed to create an evaluation framework of (international) standards and goals to identify opportunities for improvement of a port masterplan and to get a better understanding of the need for sustainable port development. Included in this evaluation framework are, amongst others, the Port Vision2030, the Corporate Social Responsibility statement and the international strategy of the Port of Rotterdam (PoR). On the basis of these visions and standards, the corporate governance of the PoR was tested by conducting an informal opinion poll amongst twenty colleagues at the PoR (International, Environmental Management and Port Development). A practical example of a traditional port development project that can be improved by applying BwN is the Kuala Tanjung (KT) PortIndustrial complex at Sumatra, in Indonesia. This port development project is still in its initiation phase where a first master plan is proposed. Since the goal of the Indonesian government is to build a worldclass port, international and sustainable standards apply. This project was used as a case to identify opportunities to improve a traditional master plan by applying a BwN approach. The evaluation framework was applied to the current master plan of KT to check whether this project meets the requirements for international port development, in particular from a nature/social point of view. It is concluded that the current design mainly focuses on the functional requirements of the port, proposing mitigation and compensation measures against the negative social and environmental impact of the port development. The BwN philosophy, on the other hand, prescribes a thorough understanding of the natural system emphasizing on the positive effects of the project for stakeholders and nature, to create a winwin solution. After applying the general evaluation framework, it became clear what aspects in the current master plan should be improved. A literature study of applied BwN solutions resulted in an onshore and offshore alternative for the port development including several BwN solutions. Together with experts involved in the KT project, it is concluded that the onshore alternative is more realistic (from a functional point of view), while still offering opportunities for applying the BwN philosophy. In the current natural system of KT the mangroves offer various important ecosystem services. In addition, it is concluded that the breakwaters proposed by the current master plan form a large part of the CAPEX. Consequently, a solution is proposed where mangroves are integrated in the design to attenuate waves and enhance< nature at the same time. To test whether this BwN solution is realistic, a preliminary feasibility study has been executed. The results of a mangrove coastal protection program at Demak (Java, Indonesia) and various scientific articles (Ecoshape BwN Guidelines, 2018) about rehabilitation programs for mangroves have been used to set up a general checklist with habitat requirements for mangroves. These requirements were compared with the local conditions at KT and recommendations for creating these conditions at the breakwater location were given. According to the checklist, the site at KT appeared to be suitable for mangrove establishment. This resulted in preliminary mangrove breakwater designs for various depths. In addition, the effect of the BwN solution on the phasing of the adapted master plan was determined, rough cost estimates were made and the implementation risks were identified. According to these conditions, the mangrovebased breakwater appeared to be technically feasible for the first 2000 m of the shallow part of the southeastern breakwater at KT. Finally, the evaluation framework was applied again to check if the current master plan of KT has been improved (read: less dilemmas occurring from deviating standards in Indonesia) and a general advice is given on the applicability of the selected BwN solution to other ports in Indonesia and (sub)tropical zones of the Asia Pacific region.Building with Nature; Sustainable Development Goals; sustainable development; mangroves; international standards; permeable dams; breakwater; port design; port development; Indonesia; Indonesia ports; Port of Rotterdam; Port of Kuala Tanjung; Ecological approach; port planning; port master plan; Corporate Governance; Sustainability; climate change; Project Management; Stakeholder management; Innovationen
master thesis)Civil Engineering  Hydraulic EngineeringPort of Kuala Tanjung3.3506353, 99.4513321)uuid:8c255d44f7b5407fae2dddcc80eafe6dDhttp://resolver.tudelft.nl/uuid:8c255d44f7b5407fae2dddcc80eafe6dSandfillRetaining rubble mound structures: Evaluating the behaviour of sediments at the interface of a rubble mound with a reclamation, by means of physical modelling.eTutein Nolthenius, Raoul (TU Delft Civil Engineering and Geosciences; TU Delft Hydraulic Engineering)Uijttewaal, Wim (mentor); Smith, Greg (graduation committee); van den Bos, Jeroen (graduation committee); Delft University of Technology (degree granting institution)c
Currently, sand retaining rubble mound structures are often constructed with geotextiles, lining the interface between the core material and the sandfill. These geotextiles are placed to make sure the sand from the sandfill is not flushed out through the core by incoming hydraulic forces from the surrounding water. It is proposed that difficulties faced during placement, or uncertainties regarding the correct installation of these geotextiles can be overcome by curtailing the geotextiles. The potential for this abbreviations is stressed by Polidoro et al. (2015) as this author concluded, that at the lower inner corner of rubble mound structures with a closed inner slope, pressures are dampened below a certain estimated critical value. However, no proof was found for the applicability of this critical value. Despite several researches predicting hydraulic loading in rubble mound breakwaters, and studies assessing the stability of sand to stone interfaces, insight in the behaviour of sediments in this particular interface configuration of a sand retaining breakwaters was lacking. Therefore, the aim of this research was to study the behaviour of sediments at the interface to a core in a sandfill. Under supervision of VAN OORD and DELFT UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY (TU Delft), a physical model is designed to study specifically this interface. The model tests took place in the Fluid mechanics Laboratory at TU Delft, where a relatively small setup (1 * 0.5 * 0.15m) was used to model on a relatively large scale (lambda= 15). An exact scaled representation of a nominal breakwater by Polidoro et al. (2015) was< used. In the model both the Development of the interface during placement of the sandfill as the behaviour of the sediments when subjected to hydraulic loading is studied. The research concluded that a stable initial interface was found with a slope of approximately 35degrees. In what extent the infill migrated inward through the core varied depending on the installation<br/>method. When subjected to hydraulic loading, a critical hydraulic gradient was found of 0.05m/m on average and 0.04m/m in the most conservative case. These results were established with a measurement accuracy of 5% and the consistency over different series of tests was 80%. Sometimes segregation of the stones was observed. The main attribution to the deviations in the measured hydraulic gradients and sediment transport were concluded due to this variation in the positioning of the stones. It is concluded that the current existing literature is able to give reasonable initial approximations of the critical gradient in the system(540% accurate), however, the deviation can be significant and further research by varying more geometrical parameters should conclude if the obtained approximations are constant. Concluding, the results obtained in this research suggest that the critical loading conditions for the interface stability of to a rubble mound in a sandfill are of comparable order to conventional filter criteria and are higher than the currently calculated and measured appearing gradients by for instance Vanneste and Troch (2012) and Polidoro et al. (2015). These results justify the further exploration towards the potential of the abbreviation of geotextiles at the considered interface. In order to guide further research a list of recommendations is given as well as additional model improvements.gRubble mound; breakwater; sandfill; retaining; suffusion; geotextile; interface; Stability; reclamationCoastal Engineering)uuid:ddd9fc49b3dd4e7fb0a991a9caf2ff92Dhttp://resolver.tudelft.nl/uuid:ddd9fc49b3dd4e7fb0a991a9caf2ff92iEffect of irregularities in the under layer on the stability of Xbloc<sup>Plus</sup> concrete armour unit@van den Berg, Ileen (TU Delft Civil Engineering and Geosciences)Aarninkhof, Stefan (mentor); Hofland, Bas (mentor); Kuiper, Coen (mentor); Reedijk, Bas (mentor); Jacobs, R (mentor); Delft University of Technology (degree granting institution)The Xbloc<sup>Plus</sup> is a new type of single layer armour unit for breakwaters. The key difference between earlier single layer armour units is that the unit is not only placed in a regular grid, but also with a regular orientation. The main benefit of this is that it can directly be seen whether the unit is placed correctly. Additionally, the placement always takes place with the same repetitive movement, as is preferred by crane drivers. The benefitsto the placement procedure would however be reduced when the requirements for the under layer become very tight. Since the time that is saved during placement of the armour units, then would be lost during the profiling of the under layer. This has led this study to focus on the influence of irregularities in the under layer on the stability of the Xbloc<sup>Plus</sup>and the allowed tolerances for the placement of the under layer.<br/>In the process of obtaining a stable armour unit, multiple researches have been conducted. The final shape has been further optimised by adding a hole in the middle of the unit and increasing the interlocking capacity. Better interlocking increased the connection between the units and thereby improved the resistance. The hole increased the porosity and thereby reduced the overpressure underneath the armour layer. Which is a result of a difference in water level inside and outside of the breakwater. The increase in stability due to the enlargement of porosity, validated earlier findings that the actingfailure mechanism is extraction due to the overpressure.<br/>The stability was expected to be mainly effected by the amount of interlocking. Subsequently, the amount of interlocking is determined by the rela< tive angle between the armour units. For this research physical model tests have been performed to check that hypothesis. Multiple tests have been conducted with different radii of convex and concave shapes in both long shore and cross shore direction. The goal was to find the criticalrelative angles of each combination of shape and direction. The convex shape in cross shore direction was the only irregularity that caused failure and proved to be critical. The relation between the relative angle and the stability number resulted to be linear, instead of the expected drop of stability at a certain critical value. The relation showed signicant spreading, for which tests with small deviations from the design profile seem to form the upper bound and large deviations the lower bound. Thereby indicating that the level of stability is not only determined by the relative angle but also by the deviation from the design profile.<br/>In succession of the tests with specific shapes and directions, more realistic tests have been performed with micro irregularities and Sproles. The convex shape in cross shore direction proved to be critical for these congurations as well. Furthermore it was found that for large Sproles, sudden failure could occur without previous indication of loss of interlocking. Further analysis of the divergent failure behaviour of large Sprofiles indicated that the arched shape of the profile enabled the lifting of the armour layer. A mechanism similar to the buckling of beams. The pressure inside the breakwater, the drag of the downrush and the weight of the upper part of the slope, cause the initial distortion of the profile to be enlarged.<br/>The differences between the measurements of the profile before and after the tests, showed that the same movements occur for smaller Sproles and the tested convex shapes in cross shore direction. The movement could even be seen in tests that have not failed. Which implies that the arching mechanism that causes sudden failure for large Sproles, also induces the loss of interlocking for other convex shapes. A simplied model of the forces on the convex sections in the profile indicates that the enforcing of the arching mechanism mainly depends on the length and steepness of the downward part of the convex section and the atness of the upward part of the convex section. These findings correspond with the test results and explain why the stability performance is the highest for the short length scale micro irregularities and lowest for the large scale Sproles with large deviations from the design profile.<br/>Evaluation of the effect of irregularities is performed with the tolerances of the regular Xbloc, which are also intended to be used on the Xbloc<sup>Plus</sup>. To prevent differences in stability due to the size of the under layer, the tolerances are expressed in the unit size (D<sub>n</sub>) instead of the under layer grain size (D<sub>n50</sub>). The resulting tolerances are maximum 0.25 D<sub>n</sub> for the deviation from the design profile and maximum 0.1 D<sub>n</sub>deviation between subsequent measurements along the profile. The profile is measured every 10m of the breakwater and subsequent measurements along the profile have a distance of 0.3 D<sub>n</sub>. The requirements are a little more liberal than the tolerances of the regular Xbloc since the tolerances of the largest under layer grain size are taken as a starting point. The test results indicate that the tolerances are sufficiently safe, with potential for more liberal requirements.<br[breakwater; concrete armour unit; physical modelling; XblocPlus; under layer irregularities)uuid:dd61dbae67ea4a67b5f2b9691240f729Dhttp://resolver.tudelft.nl/uuid:dd61dbae67ea4a67b5f2b9691240f729kExploration into the mechanisms that govern the stability of an Xbloc<sup>+</sup> <sup>v1</sup> armour unitWVos, Amber (TU Delft Civil Engineering and Geosciences; TU Delft Hydraulic Engineering)Aarninkhof, Stefan (mentor); Verhagen, Henk Jan (mentor); Hofland, Bas (mentor); Reedijk, B (mentor); Jacobs, R (mentor); Delft U< niversity of Technology (degree granting institution)In this MSc thesis it is investigated how the first version of concrete armour unit Xbloc<sup>+</sup>, Xbloc<sup>+ v1</sup>, acquires its stability. The stability mechanisms are investigated by conducting two type of physical model tests. First, 23 dry pullout tests are done to obtain insights into the aspects and mechanisms that influence the armour layer stability. At 8 locations per slope, blocks are pulled out to determine the force needed to extract an armour unit. Tests are done on a 3:4 slope with 2 pulldirections; under an angle of 45 degrees with respect to the slope and perpendicular to the slope. Concrete as well as plastic armour units are tested, both having a different surface roughness. The conclusions of the pullout tests are verified by means of the second type of model tests; small scale physical hydraulic model tests in a 2D wave flume. In total, 10 tests are conducted; 6 tests with plastic armour units and 4 tests with concrete armour units. Each test starts with a run with a small significant wave height which is increased stepwise in each run until failure occurs. All test sections have a 3:4 slope and are subjected to waves with a 4% steepness. Additionally, the influence of the significant wave height step size for successive runs is investigated. The combination of both physical model tests results in recommendations for a change in design which is expected to lead to a higher stability of an armour layer with Xbloc<sup>+</sup> armour units.qbreakwater; concrete armour unit; Xbloc+; Xbloc+ v1; uniform; stability; extraction; pullout test; 2D model test)uuid:3422e66ec73e4ec5bf8947c3b713a3fdDhttp://resolver.tudelft.nl/uuid:3422e66ec73e4ec5bf8947c3b713a3fdIImpact Proof Preliminary Design for the Marine Biology Station in DichatoDvan den Boom, Y.; Jimmink, J.; Lamens, P.; van Rhijn, T.; Wegman, R.ONganTillard, D.J.M. (mentor); Houben, L.J.M. (mentor); Verhagen, H.J. (mentor)
To the North of the city of Concepcin in the SouthWest of Chile, lies the town of Dichato. It is situated on the southeastern side of Coliumo Bay. The Universidad de Concepcin (UdeC) owns a marine concession in this bay, which includes a section of beach and sea for a Marine Biology Station (EBMD), belonging to the Faculty of Natural and Oceanographic Sciences. The objective of the EBMD is to provide research and educational support in the field of marine sciences. The EBMD concession consists of several onshore buildings with research and educational facilities, some of which are unfinished or damaged due to the Maule 2010 earthquake of magnitude Mw 8.8. Furthermore, there are remains of an old jetty for the docking of a Marine Biology vessel, which was also destroyed in 2010. Thus, UdeC is interested in redeveloping the EMBD, as there is no location for mooring of the vessel and transhipment of goods, as well as incomplete construction or use of several onshore facilities. To solve this problem, as well as to stimulate local authority interest in funding of the redevelopment of the EMBD, a design proposal is made. First the required functions, with as primary function mooring, and the insitu conditions are investigated, leading to a Program of Requirements. Five design alternatives are established and weighed in a Multi Criteria and CostBenefit Analysis, which leads to the conclusion that the Traditional option is most suitable, due to vast Chilean experience with the type of design and limited costs. From the Program of Requirements it is decided to focus on the offshore aspects of the design solution, in this case the jetty and the breakwater. The design of the jetty is carried out according to the Chilean design codes, and using the structural analysis and design program ETABS, which can incorporate seismic loading. The final design of the jetty includes a concrete deck on a steel frame, with steel piles embedded in the rock in a Marco Duplas (inclined) configuration to resist lateral loading. All elements are tested for structural soundness. The breakwater, on t< he other hand, is designed through a combination of wave modelling using statistical methods and DELFT3D; and a crest height and stone dimension analysis using BREAKWAT3.0. The upgrade of an existing unfinished building and the pavement are treated in lesser detail. For all elements of the EBMD upgrade, resilience is taken into account as a primary factor in extreme impact design, focussing on allowing structures to have a quick recover capacity, since it is not feasible to design coastal structures to resist impacts like largescale earthquakes and tsunamis. The damage to the designed elements in the case of a repeat of the Maule 2010 earthquake and tsunami is analysed in an Extreme Impact Evaluation. A range of hazards, including several modes of structural failure of the jetty and breakwater, as well as relevant geohazards for the site, are classified according to level of risk. Mitigation measures are suggested as well. Finally, following a more detailed cost breakdown and a construction timeline, it is concluded that the proposed design solution is feasible within a construction time of 35 weeks and estimated costs of 450 mil CLP. The construction of the jetty and breakwater allows the EBMD to carry out its scientific and academic research safely and more efficiently, whilst also limiting damage and incorporating resilience in the event of largescale earthquakes and tsunamis.IChile; Concepcion; earthquake; tsunami; jetty; breakwater; ETABS; DELFT3Dstudent report!Civil Engineering and Geosciences.Hydraulic Engineering / Structural EngineeringGeoEngineering36.540455,72.93272)uuid:eebf8eabfba14fb2a901c2a1c000227aDhttp://resolver.tudelft.nl/uuid:eebf8eabfba14fb2a901c2a1c000227aYErosion problem at Piarras Beach: The cause of the erosion and possible counter measuresEEijkelkamp, H.; Hendriks, C.; De Jong, C.; Otten, G.J.; Stijntjes, T.PVerhagen, H.J. (mentor); Miedema, S.A. (mentor); BoschRekveldt, M.G.C. (mentor)Over the last three decades the beach area of Piarras has undergone large changes. The river Piarras was fixed which caused severe erosion problems. With large nourishment projects the municipality tried to create a sustainable beach area. However, these nourishments did not form a long term solution, which means that, until the present day, the beach still suffers from a retreating coastline causing various hazardous circumstances from time to time. The objective of this report is to reveal the most suitable solution to the erosion problem that enables the development of a sustainable beach area. The most suitable solution should be technically feasible but also has to be economically and socially realizable. The report is intended to provide an insight in the current phenomena causing the erosion. It provides an elaboration on economical, social and technical aspects to take into account when composing a plan to resolve the erosion problem. And it proposes various feasible solutions that could help in obtaining a sustainable beach area, these are tested against these aspects to define the most suitable one. Feasible measures that were given more detailed investigation, were placement of a breakwater to elongate the headland, placing a submerged breakwater, doing an alternative nourishment and creating a long or shortterm maintenance plan. Technically, the elongation of the headland with a breakwater appeared to be the most effective measure. However, in combination with other criteria that were taken into account like finances, politics and logistics, the submerged breakwater turned out to be most suitable. Eventually, this report gives an advice to the municipality of Piarras about what measure(s) to take to protect the beach area at Piarras.@breakwater; multidisciplinary project; erosion; Piarras; BrazilHydraulic Engineering26.766824, 48.669668)uuid:3272f9600077468ba6b7fec519d6b125Dhttp://resolver.tudelft.nl/uuid:3272f9600077468ba6b7fec519d6b125BRocking Revisited 1: Rocking of a Singe Cube on a Breakwater SlopeLe, T.N.Uijttewaal, W.S.J. (mentor); Van der Lem, J.C. (mentor); H< ofland, B. (mentor); Van den Bos, J.P. (mentor); Van Gent, M.R.A. (mentor)Prototype single layer armour units on a breakwater slope are observed to break. To predict when breakage occurs, the objective of this research project is to obtain knowledge on, and measurements of the rocking behaviour and failure mode of single layer armour units. A single cube on a breakwater slope is subjected to investigations. An analysis of previously conducted research by CUR C70 reveals a number of important weak points. The first point is the assumption for the fixed number of 3 collisions per moving unit. The second point is the deployment of a onedirectional accelerometer. Consequently, the impacts, which occurred in different directions relative to the orientation of the accelerometer, were not captured accurately. The third point is the exclusion of the wave steepness during tests for impact velocities. The outcome of the calculation by CUR C70 is largely dependent on the mentioned points. Therefore, it is chosen to take those points into account in the current research. Wave flume tests are conducted, in which a similar setup as in the theoretical analysis is applied. This is chosen to have a better insight in the physical processes. The tested parameters is: degree of exposure of cube, wave height, wave steepness and position on slope in relation to the water level. It is chosen to measure the accelerations due to movement. A threeaxis accelerometer, which is placed in the cube s centre, is applied during this Master's Thesis. Data processing shows that crosstalk occurs in two accelerometer axes. Therefore, only the accelerometer zaxis is processed. To come to the desired impact velocities, a synthetic model is used, which takes the time period of movement and the angle of the cube before and after movement as input values. Subsequently, the output is the angle of the cube in time. Differentiation of the angle in time results in the angular velocities, in which the impact velocity is taken to be equal to the occurring velocity before collision. Analysing the data shows that the number of collisions is dependent on the wave height, wave steepness, position on the slope and degree of exposure of the cube. Hence, an assumption for a fixed number of 3 collisions by CUR C70 is proven to be inaccurate. Therefore, it is recommended that the amount of collisions of a moving unit is regarded as a function that has dependencies on hydraulic and geometric conditions. For multiple conditions the number of collisions is observed to become very large and hence, concrete fatigue becomes important. Consequently, it is recommended to incorporate fatigue in the calculation procedure by CUR C70. Furthermore, it is concluded that the wave steepness is of influence for the probability distribution functions and hence, the exclusion of the wave steepness by CUR C70 is proven to be incorrect. The wave steepness should be included as a variable parameter in the probability distribution function for impact velocities. In addition, it is observed that the data is described best with a Weibull distribution, which is different from the exponential distribution obtained by CUR C70. However, the two distribution types are from the same family of distributions and hence, the differences between the distribution functions remain small. Next, it is clearly observed that the probability distribution is dependent on the type of movement and therefore, it is advised to consider multiple types of movement to find the governing impacts. Lastly, analysis shows that the analytical model overestimates the impact velocities and therefore, is too conservative. The assumptions made for the analytical model should be further investigated to derive a more accurate calculation method.rocking; armour unit; cube; breakage; wave flume; slope; impact velocity; acceleration; accelerometer; breakwater; single layer)uuid:1a0c5a194cbb49c896bc236d0a40d278Dhttp://resolver.tudelft.nl/uuid:1a0c5a194cbb49c896bc236d0a40d2789Stability of Single Layer Cubes on Breakwater Rear SlopesHelling< a, L.B.Uijttewaal, W.S.J. (mentor); Verhagen, H.J. (mentor); Kuiper, C. (mentor); Van den Berg, B. (mentor); Van Gent, M.R.A. (mentor)sBreakwaters with single layer concrete armour are very commonly applied nowadays. Much research is available on the stability of single layer armour units on the seaward slope. However, rear slopes design methods for single layer armour units are rare. On rear side slopes usually similar sized units as on the seaward slope are applied. Limited design methods are available for the stability of concrete armour units on the rear side of a breakwater. To obtain stability information on single layer cubes on the rear side, scale model tests have been performed in the wave flume of the University of Technology Delft. The purpose of the model tests is to obtain a relation between the overtopping wave characteristics (overtopping volume of an individual wave event and the overtopping wave front velocity) and the stability of the cubes at the rear slope of low crested breakwaters. This relation can lead to a more optimal rear side breakwater design. The test programme consists of different configurations, in which the following parameters have been varied:  Wave steepness: three typical values for steepness have been tested s_op=0.015, 0.027 and 0.039;  Relative crest width: relative crest width ranges were W_c/H_s= 1.1 6.3;  Relative free board: relative free board ranges were R_c/H_s= 0.4 1.3;  Rear slope angle: two slope angles of 1:2 and 1:1.5 have been tested;  Packing density; packing densities of 73% and 69% have been tested A total of 11 breakwater configurations have been tested. Each configuration was tested with a sequence of waves with increasing wave height until failure of the armour layer occurred. The focus was on the determination of start of damage of the rear armour cubes, but also on filter material wash out. Together with the stability tests, wave overtopping volume tests have been performed. The overtopping volume per wave was measured in a special designed box. The overtopping wave front velocity at the crest is measured by correlating the signals of two wave gauges. The number of displaced cubes in the rear slope armour layer has been determined with image analyses and expressed in the damage number N_od. The influences of the various parameters and overtopping characteristics on the rear slope damage are presented in stability graphs. Due to lack of sufficient data points, no trend line could be established. However, the graphs can be used as a guideline for conceptual breakwater design. The critical overtopping characteristics are in a wide range. Therefore, the quantitative influence of the overtopping velocity and volume on the rear slope damage is unclear. This suggest that other aspects may influence the stability of the rear slope, for example the transmission through the breakwater or the shape of the overtopping flow around the rear slope. The analysis of the test data shows that damage on the single layer cubes on breakwater rear sides occurs later than expected. The expected cube dimensions were calculated for various configurations. First, the armour dimension of randomly placed rock is calculated with the formula of van Gent and Pozueta [2004]. Secondly, the difference in stability of randomly placed rocks and regular placed cubes was estimated applying a factor obtained from the known stability numbers on seaward slopes of both armour layers. The estimated cube dimension was used in a first test series. During this test series (almost) no damage was observed. Therefore, the remainder of the experiment was carried out with a 37% smaller cube diameter. The damage seems to be limited to first rows below the water level, which may indicate that cubes on the rear side below this level could be lighter..breakwater; rear slope; stability; overtopping)uuid:aa3dc60bad8a484281015f94010c6627Dhttp://resolver.tudelft.nl/uuid:aa3dc60bad8a484281015f94010c6627Project Imbituba4Kemper, A.; Van Ekdom, K.; Beulink, L.; Hendriks, M.lThe Port of Imbituba, located in the state < of Santa Catarina, Brazil, is a privately operated port in Brazil. In the past, the port has been upgraded in order to meet the future growth in the size and number of vessels. The main breakwater and the quay were elongated and the waterway was deepened. In the first six months of 2014, a large dredging operation took place in the port. Since the extension of the main breakwater, the port is facing difficulties regarding sedimentation. The port authority of Imbituba is eager to find a proper longterm solution that prevents the area of enormous amounts of sand accretion!Brazil; sedimentation; breakwater'TU Delft, Section Hydraulic EngineeringCampus only28.1424, 48.4013)uuid:914f5daf48e54300a44215fe39008e76Dhttp://resolver.tudelft.nl/uuid:914f5daf48e54300a44215fe39008e76Coastal protection Malecn seawall: A study to develop a sea defence solution that prevents unacceptable flooding and damage to the 'Malecn Tradicional' in Havana, CubaKLa Gasse, L.C.; Van Rooij, M.I.S.; Smits, B.P.; Ton, A.M.; Velhorst, R.L.C.This report presents a study of the Malecn Tradicional in front of Centro de Havana and Havana Vieja in the city Havana, Cuba. The objective is to develop a sea defence solution that prevents unacceptable flooding of the hinterland and damage of the Malecn seawall. Implementing the recommended solutions reduces the overtopping sufficiently. Along the entire study area, it is recommended to raise the seawall and to construct a revetment. It was concluded that a curved wall is only useful in combination with a revetment for a small part of the seawall. Both the top part and the seaside face of the Malecn seawall need a structural fortification in order to withstand the design conditions. It is recommended to partly remove the top of the current wall and replace it with a new wall, which is extended in seaward direction. Both for the design storm and for the ultimate limit state, the proposed solution satisfies the strength requirements.[seawall; wave overtopping; flooding; revetment; breakwater; recurve wall; structural damage)uuid:591990d6cefc436cb7078c729880894bDhttp://resolver.tudelft.nl/uuid:591990d6cefc436cb7078c729880894bNumerical analysis of the Forchheimer coefficients and the maximum pressures for a dike with impermeable core and permeable Elastocoast layerAzikci, M.A.IJonkman, S.N. (mentor); Verhagen, H.J. (mentor); Van den Bos, J. (mentor);The Van der Meer formula for amour stability takes the Iribarren number, number of waves and damage level into account. It also contains a factor P which describes the notional permeability of the breakwater. This factor is based on the fact that a more permeable structure dissipates more energy and hence requires less heavy armouring. Its value depends on the different layer designs of the breakwater. The notional permeability (P) was empirically determined by van der Meer [1988] for three different standard situations, to be exact the P=0,1, P=0,5 and P= 0,6. It is difficult to find the exact value of this parameter. From a physical point of view the value of P should depend on the Forchheimer coefficients. These coefficients describe the permeability of the filter layers and core of the structure. Without these coefficients a breakwater cannot be accurately calculated in a numerical model. The intention of this research is to use the IH2VOF model and to determine the pressures by the transition zone from the core of the breakwater with impermeable core and permeable layer. In the Groer Wellen Kanal (GWK) in Germany tests were done for a dike with impermeable core and permeable Elastocoast layer with a porosity of 0,388 and a stone diameter of 34mm. The maximum pressure which is measured in the GWK is 5,6 kPa. In this study the results of these GWK tests are compared with the mathematical model. This test is simulated in the IH2VOF model with non impact regular waves with Hm = 0,18m, Tm = 5,93 sec and a water depth of 3,40 m. For this study 190 combinations of Forchheimer coefficients are run with the VOF model. The Forchheimer coefficient < ? is varied between 200 and 2000 and the coefficient ? is varied between 1,0 and 1,9. Finally, twelve possible combinations of the coefficients gave an error less than one percent and two of these combinations gave the smallest error of 0,3 percent. This combinations are ? = 200 and ? = 1,7 and ? = 1700 and ? = 1,7. By the impact regular wave test with Hm = 0,98m and Tm = 2,99 with the same Forchheimer coefficient as above, the model gave an error of approximately 45% in the prediction of the pressures. In the next step of this research it is tried to improve the value of the Forchheimer coefficient by using a constant value ? = 1700 and ? = 1,7 and change the stone diameter and the porosity to find a better agreement with the maximum pressure. The porosity is varied between 0,25 and 0,55 and the stone diameter is varied between 8,5 mm to 136 mm. The results of the tests are close to each other. Only the tests with a porosity of 0,25 and stone diameter of 8,5 mm are not near to the real value of 10,77 kPa. The porosity and the stone diameter have an impact on the maximum pressure. However, after a certain value, the impact is noticeable. Hence it is possible to choose by a porosity of 0,388 a stone diameter between 0,017 m and 0,136 m and by a diameter of 0,034 m a porosity between 0,35 and 0,45. These values have not a big impact on the maximum pressure. The dike is also tested with Irregular waves with number of waves of 400 and the wave height Hm = 0,8 m. Different tests are run with the model for different Iribarren numbers which is varied between 1,0 to 5,0. It is visible that the Iribarren number and the maximum pressure are related to each other for both plunging and surging waves. In contrast to what has been mentioned above, the maximum pressure and the filter velocity for surging waves gave quite irregular results, whereas by plunging waves there is a regularity with the filter velocity and maximum pressure. The main conclusion of this research is that when using a VOF model to predict pressures inside a breakwater, it is essential to have a correct value of the Forchheimer coefficients. Simply using a standard value on the basis of the grain size only is not accurate enough.,Forchheimer coefficient; IH2VOF; breakwater)uuid:18f7dfea1d1c445aa91ffed8cacc38ddDhttp://resolver.tudelft.nl/uuid:18f7dfea1d1c445aa91ffed8cacc38ddZPhysical model tests on stability and interlocking of new breakwater armour block Crablock
Broere, A.IVan der Meer, J.W. (mentor); Verhagen, H.J. (mentor); Kuiper, C. (mentor)` The protection of breakwater structures is in this research considered. The design of rubble mound concrete armour layers for breakwaters can be divided in a single layer system and a double layer system. The single layer system is nowadays mostly applied because of the high interlocking, high stability of the structure, reduction of concrete use and a decrease of the construction period. There are several types of artificial units which can be placed in a single layer armour. At this moment the development of the new breakwater armour unit Crablock is going on. Small scale physical flume tests have been performed with focus on hydraulic stability. The influence of wave attack on the interlocking properties was determined by conducting some pull tests after wave exposure and in dry conditions. The performance of the Crablock armour layer is based on damage patterns for corresponding wave heights. Damage criteria are defined for displacement of units, individual movement and rocking. The results show that the placement pattern did not influence the hydraulic stability. For long waves, damage was observed in an earlier stage than short waves so there is a certain influence from the wave steepness. The higher crest level showed less displacements but larger settlements than the normal crest level. The lowest point where displacements were observed was for all tests applied with 0.66/Dn2 and 0.69/Dn2 around stability number 4.6. The design value of the stability number was in this stage assumed as 2.8, comparable to other units. < This leads to a large safety factor of 1.6. The pull tests consisted of unit extractions from three different levels on the slope. The interlocking degree is defined as the ratio between the force needed to extract a single unit and the own weight. For the locations around and below SWL, the ratio between the interlocking degrees with and without wave exposure is in the order of 2 to 3. So for that locations the settlement caused a considerable higher interlocking degree. For the highest extraction above SWL, the difference is negligible. It seemed that the interlocking degree was dependent on packing density but also on the extraction level on the slope. An increase in packing density led to a higher interlocking degree. This increase was higher at the location below SWL because the additional weight of the units above became important.uCrablock; breakwater; single layer armour; stability number; interlocking degree; physical scale model; unit movement)uuid:3de220e634cb4f0bb432791b82f96902Dhttp://resolver.tudelft.nl/uuid:3de220e634cb4f0bb432791b82f96902JNumerical evaluation of stability methods for rubble mound breakwater toesVerpoorten, S.P.K.eUijttewaal, W.S.J. (mentor); Zanuttigh, B. (mentor); Verhagen, H.J. (mentor); Ockeloen, W.J. (mentor)
Seaports are often protected against waves and currents by rubble mound breakwaters. At the interface between outer breakwater slope and seabed a toe structure is often build, which provides stability to the outer slope. The toe consists of a relatively small heap of rock. Since 1977 dedicated studies are made to the stability of these rock elements under wave attack. A large number of stability methods is available, but prediction accuracy is low and validity ranges are too small for use in practice. Clarity on applicability of these methods is desired by designers. In Baart (2008) a new approach towards toe stability is defended. The decoupled model approach determines stability with a twostep model. In the first step local hydraulic conditions right above the toe bed are calculated. The second step uses these conditions in a general formula for stone motion to predict motion. In this thesis the decoupled model approach is implemented and tested by means of the computational fluid dynamics model IH2VOF. Prediction capacity of existing toe stability methods is reviewed against numerical results. The approach predicts motion rather than an amount of damage. To achieve this, critical values for stability and damage were imposed where necessary. The IH2VOF model was reviewed first. Convergence tests gave recommendations for the computational grid layout. During testing it was found that position of the partially standing wave, produced by breakwater reflection under regular waves, is of major importance when reviewing different tests. It was discovered also that turbulence modelling in IH2VOF did not function properly. The NammuniKrohn (2009) cases were modelled and numerical results were compared with physical measurements by NammuniKrohn. Little correspondence was found, likely caused by differences between numerical and physical model. High sensitivity to stone properties (diameter, porosity and Forchheimer coefficients) was encountered. Analytical solutions for flow velocity either over or underestimated the numerical results. Work by Peters (2014a) increased confidence in the utility of IH2VOF for breakwater modelling. Under the assumption that turbulence is not of large importance, the Ebbens (2009) cases were modelled. By literature study the formulae by Izbash (1930), Rance and Warren (1968), Dessens (2004), Steenstra (2014) and Peters (2014b) were selected to predict stone motion. Calibration of these formulae was necessary; Rance and Warren (1968) and Peters (2014b) produced most reliable results. They probably do not need any calibration, making them more universally applicable. Prediction of motion by toe stability methods and decoupled model approach were compared. The formulae by Van der Meer (1991), Gerding (1993) and Van der Meer (1998) give good agreement wh< en validity limits are respected. If neglected, prediction capacity did not decrease much. Van Gent and Van der Werf (2014) and Muttray et al. (2014) then perform good as well. Low sensitivity to the critical values for stability and damage was found. The decoupled model approach is considered to be appropriate to determine toe stability. The results in this study should on the other hand not be used for design purposes as long as some fundamental problems are not solved. The incorrect turbulence calculation, high sensitivity to stone properties and velocity measurement difficulties of the motion formulae are the main issues which should be investigated in further research.Rbreakwater; toe stability; IH2VOF; numerical evaluation; decoupled model approach)uuid:db75aaec074f4fd097f0ede53bad9a4dDhttp://resolver.tudelft.nl/uuid:db75aaec074f4fd097f0ede53bad9a4dYEvaluation of the IH2VOF model for modelling of hydraulic properties near breakwater toesPeters, R.B.M.=Verhagen, H.J. (contributor); Van den Bos, J.P. (contributor)9The IH2VOF model can be used to simulate wavestructure interaction. This additional thesis aims to evaluate the performance of the IH2VOF model for determining the local hydraulic properties (flow velocities and water pressures) near the toe structure of a rubble mound breakwater. Firstly, the model is introduced and the appropriate computational domain and mesh size are determined, along with the other input variables for the model. The results of the IH2VOF model are compared to actual measurements of a breakwater experiment that was performed in a wave flume.IH2VOF; breakwater; toe)uuid:9834edd53ce740c0857173163e9024fdDhttp://resolver.tudelft.nl/uuid:9834edd53ce740c0857173163e9024fdIBreakwater Design for protection of floating houses in Haringvliet RegionOAggarwal, A.; Vargas Solis, A.; Pasaoglu, M.; Harihar, S.; Wahida, S.; Wang, Q.A floating house development project to be constructed in the coast of Hellevoetsluis, in the municipality of VoornePutten, is under consideration. Within a project of this nature, several aspects need to be taken into account in order to safeguard the infrastructure against additional loadings to which regular houses are not exposed to. Hydrodynamic forcing could directly or indirectly cause damage and unpleasant displacements on the houses, as they float on the waters of the Harringvliet estuary. The above can be undermined by protecting the area against waves, the most relevant loading for this site, by means of a wave wall or breakwater. By doing so, waves impacting directly on the houses are avoided; additionally calm waters behind the structure guarantee adequate condition for living facilities.breakwater; floating houses*TU Delft, Department Hydraulic Engineering51.820994, 4.141776)uuid:5483d5a9f03b401da9132838c2711407Dhttp://resolver.tudelft.nl/uuid:5483d5a9f03b401da9132838c2711407AModellering van de stroomsnelheden bij de teen van een golfbreker Arets, K.3Verhagen, H.J. (mentor); Van den Bos, J.P. (mentor)
Het doel van dit bachelor eindproject is een antwoord vinden op de vraag of het mogelijk is door middel van het IH2VOF model resultaten gevonden in een stroomgoot te simuleren. Dit moet worden uitgezocht omdat door gebruik te maken van dit model de teen van een golfbreker beter, veiliger en eenvoudiger ontworpen kan worden. Het onderzoek bestaat uit twee delen:  Bekend raken met, en kalibreren van het model.  Uitvoeren van de vergelijking met de resultaten uit de stroomgoot. Ten eerste het bekend raken met het model en het vinden van de juiste instellingen voor de modellering. Het IH2VOF model is een numeriek model dat in staat is stroomsnelheden, drukken en vloeistof niveaus te berekenen in een virtuele 2D stroomgoot. In deze stroomgoot kan een object, in dit geval een golfbreker, geplaatst worden. Het kalibreren van het model is lastig. Dit omdat de exacte werking niet geheel bekend is vanwege de ingewikkelde numerieke structuur en het feit dat de code niet in te zien is. Als gevolg hiervan is als startpunt gekozen voor de door de < literatuur bij het model gegeven uitgangspunten. Vervolgens is gekeken of het model bij deze uitgangspunten convergent is. Dit bleek erg lastig en veel tijd te kosten. Daarna is gekeken of de rekentijd van het model verkort kan worden door middel van het aanpassen van het rekenrooster (de mesh) of het verkorten van de stroomgoot. Wat betreft de mesh bleek dit slechts in de yrichting mogelijk, echter werd zo geen rekentijd bespaard. Wat betreft de lengte van de goot is het zo dat in het laboratorium een flinke lengte nodig is om de golven goed in te kunnen stellen. In het model blijkt een dergelijke lengte echter niet perse nodig. Het is waarschijnlijk belangrijk dat er meer dan 2x de golflengte aangehouden wordt als minimale lengte van de goot in het model, ongeacht de lengte van de oorspronkelijke goot. Dit is echter niet onomstotelijk bewezen. Een verkorting van de goot heeft wel rekentijdverkorting tot gevolg. Ten tweede volgt de vergelijking van de door NammuniKrohn [2009] gevonden waarden voor de stroomsnelheden bij de teen van een golfbreker in een stroomgoot, met de door het model gesimuleerde waarde. Als gevolg van de tijdsplanning van dit bachelor project is er helaas weinig tijd over gebleven voor deze vergelijking. Echter een korte simpele vergelijking van een aantal punten uit het rapport van NammuniKrohn [2009] liet zien dat het model wel degelijk goede waarde simuleert. Concluderend kan gesteld worden dat met de instellingen die in dit verslag beschreven staan het model waarschijnlijk wel in staat is de werkelijkheid te benaderen. Hiervoor moet echter wel eerst nog beter naar de convergentie en het gedrag van de golfserie gekeken worden.DIH2VOF; breakwater; NammuniKrohn; stroomsnelheden; flow velocitiesnlbachelor thesis
20140218)uuid:fceca5e138cc4ad798567c0b18b869b1Dhttp://resolver.tudelft.nl/uuid:fceca5e138cc4ad798567c0b18b869b17Deformation of Breakwater Roundheads under ConstructionCurto Balbela, V.Verhagen, H.J. (mentor)Breakwaters under construction are prone to undesired deformation because the breakwater core is not designed to withstand severe or moderate wave loads. The reshaping mechanisms for a complete (finished) breakwater have been comprehensively studied; however, few research studies have been undertaken to analyze the deformation mechanisms of the breakwater core (or a breakwater under construction). It is imperative for the contractor to understand how the reshaping takes place because reshaping requires construction schedules to be adjusted as well as additional material and therefore, additional costs. The present study focusses on the deformation rubble mound breakwater roundheads undergo during the construction phase. Mulders (2010) performed physical model tests for breakwaters under construction exposed to wave attack. To investigate the deformation processes, twelve scaled physical model tests were performed by varying the wave height (8cm for low and 10cm for high wave heights), wave angle (0, 30, and 45), and material grading (fg= 1.3 for narrow and fg=6 for wide grading). The data from Mulders tests was used in this study to analyze the breakwater deformation, with emphasis on the roundheads, via volumetric changes (initial and final test conditions) for a given control volume. The control volumes included the overwash, the overall breakwater, and the roundheads using radial and angular sectioning methods. The radial sections depicted the crossshore transport while the angular sections illustrated the longshore sediment transport at the roundheads. As expected, the overwash volumes were proportional to wave load and angle of wave attack. Regarding the breakwater overall behavior, wide graded material caused a volume increase due to the transverse movement of the coarse fractions while the narrow graded material (fine fraction) decreased in volume thus, increasing the packing density. This sorting mechanism was also noticeably present in the roundheads for the radial sections. For the roundheads, distinctive percentage losses (sectors with low resistance to wave load< ing) were clearly present in the radial sectors; thus, transverse (radially outward) sediment transport was the dominant deformation mechanism over longshore transport. Longshore transport did contribute to roundhead deformation; however, no maximum losses were found because the volume losses were nearly equal throughout the angular sectors. As a result, the angle of wave incidence did not affect the volume losses in the angular direction. With regards to material sorting at the roundheads, wide graded material caused a volume increase at the outer radii due to the transverse movement of the coarsest fraction potentially reducing the packing density. On the other hand, grading did not influence the roundhead negative percent changes in the radial direction; thus, grading appeared to be indifferent to volume losses but relevant for volume gains.Zbreakwater; roundhead; core; construction; deformation; grading; wave obliquity; reshaping)uuid:bf4282cc031c4da495cfd034c4bc6477Dhttp://resolver.tudelft.nl/uuid:bf4282cc031c4da495cfd034c4bc6477jEconomic optimization of breakwaters  Case study: Maintenance of Port of Constantza s Northern BreakwaterPiccoli, C.Verhagen, H.J. (mentor); Savov, B.V. (mentor)IThis report presents the results of an Additional MSc Thesis as part of the Master Programme of Hydraulic Engineering from the Delft University of Technology Civil Engineering and Geosciences Faculty. The objective of this additional graduation work is to provide a better insight on economical optimization of breakwaters. Information about the processes of optimizing a breakwater is gathered in this report. A description of the design and optimization methods of new breakwater structures is provided and the method is adapted and applied on a maintenance optimization case study for an existent breakwater. Part I of this report covers the design process and optimization methods and Part II presents the case study at which optimization is applied to the maintenance of the Port of Constantza s Northern Offshore Breakwater in Romania.?economic optimization; maintance; breakwater; cumulative damage44.12163889, 28.70008056)uuid:ca18c2758b8b42519add094bba8eb230Dhttp://resolver.tudelft.nl/uuid:ca18c2758b8b42519add094bba8eb230JKribi port project in Cameroon (Caen Workshop Maritime & Port Engineering)
Kolijn, D.:Verhagen, H.J. (contributor); Carpentier, G. (contributor)rThe workshop is based around the development of a brand new port facility in Cameroon (West Africa) south of the Mboro cape at Kribi. The client supplied a large collection of data in order to perform a complete assessment of the area including a full metocean study, geotechnical investigation, breakwater and port facility design, vessel fleet analysis, construction feasibility exercise, port layout of both dry and wet infrastructure, and a physical modelling campaign to test and observe the selected breakwater configuration. In addition, a large variety of software and computational tools were provided, inducing TOMAWAC, Refonde, ROBOT and TALRIN. These programs were taught by visiting guest lectures and support staff at ESITC Caen. The nature and use of these programs in the project will be discussed in the following report. Besides the extensive technical support during the workshop and involvement in the project work, a series of technical visits were also arranged. The report describes the technical visits and lessons learnt in detail. The locations that were visited were the Port of Le Havre, a perforated breakwater at Granville, dredging works at MontSaint Michelle, the inland port of Blainville, a RoRo terminal and breakwater at Ouistreham, and finally the transhipment port of Honfleur. These visits built a physical understanding of many of the elements discussed in the workshop. In addition to absorbing many technical details at each of these locations, the visits were also meant to promote French society, and working culture. Various tours with architects, historians and civil engineering experts were arranged.&port design; breakwater; model studies)uu< id:115fbcac5a694c2e867466f8c4098ebcDhttp://resolver.tudelft.nl/uuid:115fbcac5a694c2e867466f8c4098ebc^The influence of core permeability on the stability of interlocking, single layer armour units
Verdegaal, I.oUijttewaal, W.S.J. (mentor); Van den Bos, J.P. (mentor); Van den Berg, A. (mentor); Van Zwicht, B.N.M. (mentor)The permeability of a breakwater is of great importance for the stability of the armour layer. The influence of the structural permeability on the stability of rock armour units was already researched by Van der Meer using the 'notional' permeabiltiy. However, for single layer interlocking armour units the influence core permeability is rather unfamiliar. The goal of this research is to extend the knowledge on the failure mechanism of the armour layer for different structural permeability. To achieve this goal, model tests are conducted in the permeameter of the Technical University of Delft and in the wave flume of Delta Marine Consultants, Utrecht. The tests show that the stability of the armour layer decreases with increasing and decreasing core permeability.?breakwater; armour; interlocking; core; permeability; stability
20130604Coastal engineering)uuid:1a90f082e9044f35b3c225482549beadDhttp://resolver.tudelft.nl/uuid:1a90f082e9044f35b3c225482549bead3Influence of very oblique waves on wave overtoppingLOosterlo, Patrick (Civil Engineering and Geosciences; Hydraulic Engineering)van der Meer, Jentsje (mentor); Zitman, Tjerk (mentor); Verhagen, Henk Jan (mentor); Delft University of Technology (degree granting institution)The main goal of this study is to determine the relation between very oblique wave attack and overtopping, and to accordingly adjust the formulae for oblique wave attack. The required knowledge to be able to read and understand this report is of a Bachelor in civil engineering level. All around the world different types of structures are built to protect adjacent areas from river or coastal flooding during high water levels. Only limited research is available on the influence of oblique wave attack (for angles over 45 degrees) on wave overtopping. Hydralab is an EUproject, which gives researchers in the European Union the possibility to carry out research in large hydraulic facilities. Cornerdike is a part of the Hydralab IV program. The Cornerdike research project was performed at the shallowwater basin at DHI in Hrsholm, Denmark. To achieve the goal of this research, tests, data processing and analysis were done.fovertopping; waves; oblique waves; breakwater; dike; angle of incidence; wave attack; wave overtoppingHydralab IV)uuid:06c6038825004fa09012ba101e90fa5aDhttp://resolver.tudelft.nl/uuid:06c6038825004fa09012ba101e90fa5aOosterlo, P.KVerhagen, H.J. (mentor); Zitman, T.J. (mentor); Van der Meer, J.W. (mentor)The main goal of this study is to determe the relation between very oblique wave attack and overtopping, and to accordingly adjust the formulae for oblique wave attack. The required knowledge to be able to read and understand this report is of a Bachelor in civil engineering level. All around the world different types of structures are built to protect adjacent areas from river or coastal flooding during high water levels. Only limited research is available on the influence of oblique wave attack (for angles over 45 degrees) on wave overtopping. Hydralab is an EUproject, which gives researchers in the European Union the possibility to carry out research in large hydraulic facilities. Cornerdike is a part of the Hydralab IV program. The Cornerdike research project was performed at the shallowwater basin at DHI in Hrsholm, Denmark. To achieve the goal of this research, tests, data processing and analysis were done.overtopping; waves; oblique waves; breakwater)uuid:cb6658a3c9ca4c8aa4432094ba99b174Dhttp://resolver.tudelft.nl/uuid:cb6658a3c9ca4c8aa4432094ba99b174A generic quantitative damage description for rubble mound structures: Investigation of damage to roundheads by using a 3D highresolution measurement technique in a physical model< Disco, M.J.]Uijttewaal, W.S.J. (mentor); Hofland, B. (mentor); Verhagen, H.J. (mentor); Berg, A. (mentor)8Breakwaters are used for reducing wave height in harbours or divert sediment. One of the types of breakwaters is the rubble mound breakwater. These structures are constructed with smaller quarry rock as core and larger quarry rock as outer layer. For economical reasons, the design allows some damage to the armour layer. The amount of damage is objectively and quantitative determined by damage parameters. There are several different damage parameters which describe all different unique characteristics of the erosion hole. For a straight slope with a constant cross section, extensive research is executed for reliable design values of some of these parameters. For a 3D geometry such as a roundhead such design values are not formulated. This thesis is about roundhead model tests, executed at Deltares research institute. Four tests with increasing wave height are executed to eight identical roundheads. The roundheads weren t repaired in between test so progressive damage occurred. The damage was analysed with the use of digital stereo photography (DSP), this highresolution measurement technique creates a computer model of the physical model with a resolution of one mm. By subtracting the computer models of before and after a test, the erosion and deposition is accurately represented. The damage level is quantitatively determined by comparing different damage parameters. The compared parameters consider all different aspects of the erosion, the number of displaced stones (damage percentage Nd), the number of displaced stones per stone width (Nod), eroded area (van der Meer damage parameter S), nominal erosion length (L) & the nominal erosion depth (E). Before the results are being analysed, the data gathered from the DSP must be processed to smooth the individual stones but keep the erosion profile intact. The optimal smoothing process is based on a convolution or moving average principle. The size of the optimal smooth factor is two times the median nominal stone size (Dn50). The results show three erosion holes at the roundhead, the first erosion hole between 0~10 from the incident wave direction, the second between 60~70 from the incident wave direction and the third between 105~115 from the incident wave direction. The most damage was observed at the first and third erosion hole. The damage in the third erosion hole was slightly higher and more variable between the eight realizations compared with the first erosion hole. By comparing the different damage parameters it appears that only the erosion depth E, is representing the realizations correctly; the highest values in the third erosion hole with the largest deviation. Therefore design values of this damage parameter are proposed for roundheads with a slope of 1:2 and an armour layer thickness of two times Dn50. Initial damage: E = 0.2 ~ 0.3 Intermediate damage: E = 0.5 ~ 0.6 Failure: E = 1.0 ~ 1.1 Collapse: E = 1.5 ~ 1.6 To come to a generic damage parameter further research is necessary to validate the proposed design values for roundheads with different configurations, such as different slopes and different radius.Vbreakwater; roundhead; damage; Digital stereo photography; erosion depth; rubble mound)uuid:4bf469bf428446108c81a2641a7a8df4Dhttp://resolver.tudelft.nl/uuid:4bf469bf428446108c81a2641a7a8df4dThe influence of the wave height distribution on the stability of single layer concrete armour unitsZwanenburg, S.A.A.hUijttewaal, W.S.J. (mentor); Van Vledder, G.P. (mentor); Verhagen, H.J. (mentor); Ten Oever, E. (mentor) The dimensions of single layer concrete armour units (interlocking armour units) are calculated with a similar stability relation as the stability relation for quarry stone. In these design formulas an 'average/significant' wave load is used (Hs). Since quarry stone gains its stability only from gravity, this type of armour unit is constructed in a double layer and therefore some damage development is allowed. Interlocking armour units are cons< tructed in a single layer and the design should be based on zero damage. This research investigates whether this different approach to damage leads to a different characteristic design wave load which will increase the accuracy of the design method for interlocking armour units. It is focussed on the influence of the wave height distribution on the stability of single layer concrete armour units in general and Xbloc in particular. For Xbloc, zero damage is defined as a criterion for rocking of the armour units: during design conditions "not more than 2% of the units are allowed to move during more than 2% of the waves". To find a stability relation based on this criterion, the stability of Xbloc is investigated according to rocking of armour units contrary to the conventionally approach to stability based on the number of displaced units from the armour layer. To find the relation between waves and rocking, physical model tests are performed. In these tests a model breakwater is loaded by wave series with different wave height distributions, wave steepness and groupiness. It resulted that every wave has a certain probability of causing rocking of an armour unit. This probability of rocking is mainly dependent on the height of individual waves and to a lesser extent on the groupiness of the wave series. The steepness of the waves appeared to have a negligible small influence. When the found rocking probability relation is combined with the criterion for rocking, it appears that H2% is mathematically a better fitting parameter for a stability relation according to rocking. A new stability relation for Xbloc is derived based on H2%. Additionally, it is found that very extreme wave heights can dislodge an armour unit in such a way that this armour unit does not interlock anymore. Because it is undesirable that armour units do not interlock anymore, dislodgement of armour units should be accounted for in the stability calculations. Therefore, also a stability relation based on dislodgement of units is provided.Lbreakwater; Xbloc; armour unit; rocking; wave height distribution; wave load)uuid:561dc123b4c24aeaae22c43b540607a5Dhttp://resolver.tudelft.nl/uuid:561dc123b4c24aeaae22c43b540607a5TStatic and dynamic loads on the first row of interlocking, single layer armour unitsVan de Koppel, M.A.eUijttewaal, W.S.J. (mentor); Van den Bos, J. (mentor); Verhagen, H.J. (mentor); Muilwijk, M. (mentor)F
Interlocking, single layer concrete armour units are placed in a specific grid depending on the type of armour unit. Within this grid, armour units are placed in horizontal rows. The number of horizontal rows of single layer armour units on a breakwater is limited to 20. This limit is proposed in order to prevent major settlements, which might affect the interlocking of the armour units. The limit on the number of rows is based on experience from prototypes and is not yet confirmed in a systematic study. Then number of rows also might have an effect on the load on the first (bottom) row of armour units, which affects the structural integrity of the armour units. The load on the first row of armour units is however unknown. The research presented in this thesis is a study on the load on the first (bottom) row of concrete armour units placed on a breakwater. Both the static load and the dynamic load were examined. The static load is defined as the load on the bottom row of armour units resulting from the higher positioned rows of armour units during conditions without waves. The dynamic load is defined as the load on the bottom row of armour units during conditions with wave attack minus the static load. These loads were studied by physical model tests. The static load was studied in an experiment in which the down slope force on the bottom rows of armour units (Xbloc units of 366 grams) was continuously measured during the placement of 20 rows of armour units on a slope of 37 degrees (slope of 3:4) in a series of 15 tests. The dynamic load was studied in a physical model test in a wave flume. The first row of armour units was placed on a movabl< e frame which was connected to a load cell. The dynamic load was measured during tests with regular waves of 20% to 100% of the maximum wave height corresponding to the used armour unit (Xbloc units of 61.7 gram which were positioned on a typical breakwater slope of 3:4) and a wave period corresponding to an Iribarren number of 3, 4 and 5 for all of the described wave heights. This static load experiment resulted in a relationship of the measured static load on the first row of armour units with the number of rows applied on the slope of the model. From this relationship appeared that the static load approaches a maximum value after 10 rows. An analytical model was developed and validated against the measured results. This model gives an interpretation of the cause of the maximum value. The measurements of the dynamic load showed two clear phenomena. The dynamic load appeared to be a harmonic load with the same period as the waves imposed on the model. The dynamic load is the result of the flow of water along the armour layer. The maximum dynamic load on the first row of armour units occurred simultaneous with the maximum downwash which is in line with expectations. A relation between the downwash velocity and the amplitude of the dynamic load was found. The second observed phenomenon is the increase of the wave averaged load on the first row of armour units during the test. During the tests the harmonic load oscillated around an equilibrium line which showed a positive trend. The measured load after testing was significant higher than the measured load at the beginning of the tests. A relation was found between the wave characteristics and the increase of the load on the first row of armour units.9breakwater; Xbloc; static load; dynamic Load; armour unit)uuid:e7ef8d1e6f9a437f82a0581c935055c1Dhttp://resolver.tudelft.nl/uuid:e7ef8d1e6f9a437f82a0581c935055c1'Damage on rock slopes under wave attackPapadopoulos, D.1
The aim of this study is the particularisation of the accuracy margins for the determination of the damage level in the experimental plan proposed by Remon Kik at his thesis for the study of Notional Permeability of breakwaters The experimental research of the permeability factor P . The evaluation of the proposed technique took place by means of comparisons between different test cases in order to specify the existence of similarities in the statistical behaviour of original tests and their repetitions. Therefore, statistical tests are used to examine the behaviour of the individual tests not only individually, but also in combination with the rest of the test components. For the selected statistical and computational approaches the optimum measurement space step had to be specified. Therefore, a comparison took place between measurements every 5cm and every 10cm. The length of the confidence intervals was used to quantify the difference in accuracy and the two fundamental non parametric tests of MannWhitney U/ Wilcoxon W and KolmogorovSmirnov (theoretical explanation Appendix B) were applied in order to qualitatively investigate the magnitude of the behavioral change of the distribution due to the addition of the inbetween measurements (profile measurements every 5cm). The analysis showed that although the smaller measuring step increased the accuracy at about 10 30% the differences in absolute damage values were trivial. Furtherupon, differences among tests that occur in the plunging and in the surging area were examined and tendencies were recorded. The outcome showed that an imperceptible difference occurs. The deviation was steadily bigger for the case of tests located in the plunging area (28% in contrast to 21.5% of the surging area), but this difference is considered to be trivial. Finally, the accent was paid in the limitations of the available means and equipment. The observed higher damage values at the sides were investigated. The 13 cross sections of the structure were divided into two groups of side and middle cross sections and comparisons between them were accomplished. Then the influence of the< boundary measurements was quantified in order to interpret any existing tendencies of higher damage values and local irregularities that may affect the output of the computations. In fact, the data analysis showed that the variation of damage values at the side cross sections was for all the cases larger than the middle ones. In half of the cases the difference was significant while for the other half, difference occurred, but with a lower magnitude.%breakwater; permeability; model tests)uuid:7591bcf7139a4b6cb5c1721c89dc1e38Dhttp://resolver.tudelft.nl/uuid:7591bcf7139a4b6cb5c1721c89dc1e38\The notional permeability of breakwaters: Experimental research on the permeability factor PKik, R.Stive, M.J.F. (mentor); Uijttewaal, W.S.J. (mentor); Van den Bos, J.P. (mentor); Verhagen, H.J. (mentor); Van der Meer, J.W. (mentor); Maertens, J. (mentor)The stability formula developed by Van der Meer is used for the design of different kind of rock slopes. In the formula is among a number of other parameters also the permeability of the structure represented. A more permeable structure has the ability to dissipate more water and therefore more energy, this results into a lower required weight of the armour layer. This coefficient, described as the Notional Permeability P, has been determined for three different types of structures. A homogeneous structure, a structure with a permeable core and an impermeable structure. In practice structures are being build who deviate from these standard situations. Therefore there is a demand for values of P about structures other than the known standard situations. In this thesis P values are found by means of physical scale model tests. First of all two reference structures were tested. The permeable and the impermeable structure with known values of P= 0.5 and respectively P=0.1. The values found in this study are almost equal to the values above. The new structure has an impermeable core covered with a thick filter layer. On top of that an under layer is placed and finally there is a double armour layer.;breakwater; notional permeability experiments; van der Meer)uuid:bb6fc1ba3abf4bbe8605bd4fb4ed1884Dhttp://resolver.tudelft.nl/uuid:bb6fc1ba3abf4bbe8605bd4fb4ed1884DWave kinematics inside homogeneous submerged rubblemound breakwater
Mingou, P.]Memos, C. (mentor); Verhagen, H.J. (mentor); Papanikolaou, P. (mentor); Tsoukala, V. (mentor)ZBreakwaters are important for the preservation and development of coastal areas. Submerged breakwaters have significant advantages compared to emerged, such as economical construction and preservation, milder effect on landscape and under conditions, preservation of marine flora and fauna inside it. The main objective of this study is to give estimation about whether a homogeneous rubblemound submerged breakwater could attract and preserve marine life inside it. This would be determined by measuring the water flow and thus oxygen adequacy inside such a structure. This research has been performed by means of a physical model. Three variables are considered in this study: wave period wave height submergence factor For different variations of the parameters, pressure gradients and pore velocities inside the breakwater are being measured. In the analysis of the data collected from the measurements, the impact of the varying variables is investigated leading to useful conclusions and better understanding of the entire process. Finally, suggestions of further research on this topic are discussed.:rubble mound; breakwater; pore velocity; pressure gradient)uuid:d60a9711aefc44fab91e1ab47930f2ecDhttp://resolver.tudelft.nl/uuid:d60a9711aefc44fab91e1ab47930f2ecFThe influence of armour layer and core permeability on the wave runupVan Broekhoven, P.J.M.dUijttewaal, W.S.J. (mentor); Verhagen, H.J. (mentor); Den Heijer, C. (mentor); Maertens, J. (mentor)N In JUMELET [2010] a method with a physical basis (so called Volume Exchange model ) to determine the notional permeability coefficient P was developed. The notional permeability coefficient was < previously introduced in the stability formula of the armour layer; see VAN DER MEER [1988]. In this latter study this coefficient was empirically based for three different structures. Due to the limited validity it is difficult to apply a coefficient for different breakwater configurations. The Volume Exchange model determines the influence of the core permeability by computing the difference between the surface wave runup on an impermeable core and a permeable core. The volume of water that flows into the core causes a reduction of the wave runup. Reduction of the wave runup is not only caused by infiltration, but also by the slope surface roughness and energy dissipation inside the pores of the armour layer. To investigate the influence of the above three mentioned factors physical model tests have been conducted. The tests were carried out in the wave flume in the water laboratory at Delft University of Technology. On four different configurations (smooth impermeable slopes, rough impermeable slope, armour layer on an impermeable core and permeable core) tests were conducted. In the analysis of the results the influence of the surface roughness, energy dissipation in the pores of the armour layer and the reduction of the surface wave runup due to the inflow into the core could be determined. Besides, the surface wave runup also the wave runup on the core is measured. The results showed that the slope surface roughness has no influence on the wave runup, when the waves are of the surging breaker type. Also, the surface wave runup is not reduced by a permeable core. Wave runup measurements showed the same wave runup height for armour layers on an impermeable and a permeable core. Wave runup on the core showed a considerable difference between runup on an impermeable core and a permeable core. Therefore, in the Volume Exchange model the wave runup on the core should be considered. The adjusted Volume Exchange model is used to determine a formula for the permeability coefficient. This has led to the conclusion that the permeability coefficient is dependent on the Iribarren number and the structural configurations and /or properties.Xbreakwater; core permeability; notional permeability; wave runup; Volume Exchange model)uuid:405c20e4b09c40d89c50221dd9dea3e3Dhttp://resolver.tudelft.nl/uuid:405c20e4b09c40d89c50221dd9dea3e3#Extraction Force Xbloc: Model TestsDe Lange, M.EVerhagen, H.J. (mentor); Reedijk, J.S. (mentor); Muttray, M. (mentor)This report describes the influence of the slope angle of a breakwater slope, the density of the concrete of the Xbloc armour unit, the vertical position of the Xbloc on the breakwater slope and the roughness of the under layer of the breakwater on the extraction force of an Xbloc armour unit. By testing the extraction force, indirectly the influence of all parameters above on the Xbloc unit interlocking capacity can be described. This research has been done by doing model tests with small scale Xbloc units.JXbloc; extraction force; breakwater; golfbreker; armour unit; interlocking)uuid:b34a47c2ae4c496d9350531023bf3f07Dhttp://resolver.tudelft.nl/uuid:b34a47c2ae4c496d9350531023bf3f07Port Design  Nador
Heuts, R.A.R.ZLigteringen, H. (mentor); Verhagen, H.J. (mentor); Labeur, R.J. (mentor); Vis, F. (mentor)Along the northern coast of Morocco order has been given for the construction of a large transshipment port in the Mediterranean Sea, at a designated project location around the city of Nador. On this greenfield coastal stretch a new transhipment port will have to be developed for various types of cargo. Throughputs of the terminals will have to be maximized, a plan for inphased port development and expansion will have to be provided, cargo transport to the hinterland has to be taken into account and sufficient surface space should be included in the design for additional services. Relevant data regarding the project (location) has been identified and analyzed: hydrodynamic data (wind, waves, currents, water levels) and environmental site data (topography, bathyme< try, geology, hydrology and morphology). Besides this, a forecast has been formulated with the expected design ships that will visit the new port. From this, cargovessel distributions and vesselarrival distributions have been defined, resulting in the total amount of shipping traffic for every terminal. Subsequently, the design of the port master plan can commence in which first of all the approach channel, harbor basins and manoeuvring and berth areas have been designed. As a next step the characteristics of the various terminals have been determined, under which the number of berths, quay length and surface areas. After using all port elements listed above jointly, several port masterplan layouts have been drawn up. From these port masterplan layouts, the most promising alternative has been selected after comparison by means of a Multi Criteria Analysis (MCA) on various criteria under which nautical ease, safety, expansion possibilities and costs. Concluding to this, the selected port masterplan layout has been optimized. The resulting harbour layout has been assessed regarding the topic of inport wave penetration and propagation. Limiting operational wave criteria have been defined and relevant wave processes have been evaluated with the wave simulation model DIFFRAC2DH. In order to decrease wave reflection due to monolithic breakwaters (and thus the port s downtime), new simulation runs were carried out with an improved breakwater configuration using lowreflectivity caissons. With these wavedampening improvements included, the simulation model runs yielded very positive results. The wave study was concluded with an assessment on port oscillations as a result of earthquakes, tsunamis and meteorological forces. After the performed wave study, the port breakwaters have been designed. For this, two typical crosssections were selected. After including construction constraints and wave damping measures, a rubble mound breakwater was designed with a specific armour layer, and a vertical composite breakwater as a perforated wall caisson on a rubble mound foundation bed. The application of wave energy absorbing measures is a necessity in order to minimize the port s downtime, and will have to be included in a final design. The designed port masterplan layout meets all specifications and requirements and its breakwaters are adequate in creating calm inport berthing conditions resulting in high uptimes of the berths.port; design; masterplan; layout; container terminal; bulk terminal; Nador; Morocco; breakwater; wave penetration; wave study; diffrac; wadi; MCA; evaluation; multi criteria analysis
20120902)uuid:0122fe2e0260489fb2586e167fa9a621Dhttp://resolver.tudelft.nl/uuid:0122fe2e0260489fb2586e167fa9a621<Experimental research on spatial distribution of overtopping
Lioutas, A.C.`Stive, M.J.F. (mentor); Verhagen, H.J. (mentor); Uijttewaal, W.S.J. (mentor); Smith, G. (mentor)The overtopping empirical formulas calculate the discharge only at the top of the crest of a coastal protection structure. On the other hand, the tolerable overtopping discharges are defined at certain points behind the crest where the total overtopping is reduced. The scope of this thesis is to find an empirical formula to describe the distribution of overtopping at the space behind the crest. This thesis comes as a further investigation on the work conducted by v.Kester [2009] for regular waves. In this research, a physical model was developed on which irregular waves are tested. Because of the duration of the tests and the amount of collected water (significant lose of water during the test), a completely new measuring system was designed. Five influencing parameters (variables) are considered on this research: wave height, wave period/steepness, slope angle, crest freeboard and crest permeability. The entire overtopping process is analysed separately for the total overtopping discharge, the overtopping discharge directly behind the crest and the distribution of overtopping behind the structure. In the analysis of the data collected from the measu< rements, the impact of the varying parameters is investigated leading to useful conclusions and better understanding of the entire process. Additionally, the experimental findings are analysed and compared to the relative existing methods. Based on the TAW [2002] method which is proposed by the EurOtop Manual [2007], a prediction formula is developed. This formula is a generic version of TAW [2002] formula in which a new reduction factor ?c is introduced in order to describe the decay of the overtopping and thus predict the discharge at any certain distance behind the crest. Other relevant methods are also analysed (Juul Jensen [1984], Steenaard [2002], Besley [1999] and v.Kester [2009]) and conclusions for their applicability are drawn leading to suggested improvements or corrections. Apart from the distribution of overtopping, on this thesis the determination of crest freeboard (which is an ambiguous issue) is also investigated. Finally, suggestions of further research on this topic are discussed. The entire work has been perfomed in close cooperation with van Oord.breakwater; physical modelling)uuid:31cabd8d62194ac6a72e0bd6cc283fe9Dhttp://resolver.tudelft.nl/uuid:31cabd8d62194ac6a72e0bd6cc283fe9A comparison of overtopping behaviour over a permeable and impermeable crest: An insight into overtopping discharges and intensitiesAfridi, Z.N.The purpose of this report is to investigate the differences in overtopping characteristics over the crest of a rubble mound breakwater when the crest is made either impermeable or permeable. Among numerous characteristics that are effected by a modification in the permeability of the crest, this report looks specifically into three separate aspects: the design level changes that are caused by modifications in the permeability of the crest, a comparison of the total and sectorwise overtopping discharges and finally the differences in spatial overtopping intensities between the two. By looking into two wellknown overtopping design guidelines for overtopping, namely, Owen and Eurotop, this report aims to look at the differences it would make in designing a breakwater with either an impermeable or a permeable crest. This is done by building a breakwater model in a wave flume and comparing it with the existing guidelines and assessing the changes that best represent the modified model. It is also important to observe how this physical modification of the crest affects the overtopping discharges and spatial overtopping intensities behind the crest of the breakwater. This will be relevant for designers or contractors tasked to make changes to an existing breakwater that results in its crest becoming impermeable. An insight into the overtopping discharges and intensities will be extremely useful to be able to predict the overall changes and cater for them.6overtopping; breakwater; permeability; porosity; waves)uuid:cc04f91a4f2d4c6c9c8ea803a258f500Dhttp://resolver.tudelft.nl/uuid:cc04f91a4f2d4c6c9c8ea803a258f5007Breakwaters under construction exposed to oblique wavesMulders, P.H.M.bStive, M.J.F. (mentor); Verhagen, H.J. (mentor); Uijttewaal, W.S.J. (mentor); Smith, G.M. (mentor)During the construction of breakwaters contractors often encounter undesired reshaping of exposed core material. This reshaping is comparable to the deformation process of berm breakwaters in which the outer profile reshapes into a more stable scurve. In the case of oblique waves this deformation is enhanced by a longshore transport of stones leading to even more loss of material and damage. Throughout the years few formulas were derived for both processes which describe the behaviour of berm breakwaters as well as gravel beaches reasonably well. These formulas however turned out to be inadequate when it comes to describing the behaviour of core material. In particular the influence of the wide grading of quarry run, commonly used as core material, is to a large extent unknown and generally not described in the available relations. To investigate this influence of the stone grading on both the twodimensi< onal deformation and longshore transport new physical model tests were carried out in the wave basin at Delft University of Technology. In total 12 tests were executed in which two different gradings, three different angles of wave attack and two different wave spectra were tested. Data collected from the tests included wave and profile measurements together with the displacements of stones, originating from two colour beams which were applied in the middle of the trunk. These data along with visual observations eventually led to a conceptual model describing stone movements in both transverse and longshore direction. Using Matlab threedimensional profile and erosion models were generated from which the different profile parameters were determined. With respect to the distance from origin, for each test an exponential relation was derived to describe the stone displacements. After determination of the area of uniform transport these exponential relations were used to calculate the total longshore transport by means of extrapolation and multiple integrations. Subsequently all parameters found were compared to the formulas currently available for both processes. Regarding the deformation parameters the test results produced the best fit with the formulas derived in [MERLI 2009]. Still on several occasions a deviant relation was found concerning the influence of wave obliquity. In addition, the formulas became less accurate for the narrow grading used in the tests, which fell outside the range tested by Merli. However, for the crest height of the deformed profile test results deviated completely from the available formula as no influence was found whatsoever for all tested parameters. Here the deviation was contributed to a higher instability of the part above the initial deformation, partly due to the steepness of the slope. On the subject of the longshore transport clear trends were found describing the influence of the varying parameters. Both a higher wave load and wider grading lead to an increase of the longshore transport. For the wider grading, however, this increase gave a rather distorted image, as not all fractions in the mixture were transported evenly. Due to segregation the coarsest fractions were mostly transported in the transverse direction while the finer fractions were transported further away in the longitudinal direction. Alternatively, computation of the longshore volume transport proved to be more representative. Regarding the effect of wave obliquity an increase in angle of wave attack of 30 to 45 degrees was accompanied by a decrease in longshore transport; though this decrease was less than already available formulas indicated. However despite the fact that it describes a completely different trend concerning this particular influence, the best fit was found after multiplying the relation derived by [ALIKHANI 1996] with a factor 100.grading; breakwater; core; reshaping; twodimensional deformation; longshore transport; stone displacement; physical model test; wave obliquity)uuid:62a2387f665249f69c7a1ccc714056c3Dhttp://resolver.tudelft.nl/uuid:62a2387f665249f69c7a1ccc714056c3%Master plan Porto Romano Bay, Albania
Kersten, M.K.]Ligteringen, H. (mentor); Quist, P. (mentor); Soons, F.A.M. (mentor); Verhagen, H.J. (mentor)
Albania has the following major sea ports: Durrs, Vlora, Sarand and Shngjin. The port of Durrs has the biggest share in the volume of import/export in Albania, nearly 75%. Due to current development rates, limited possibilities for expansion and pollution in the city because of its vicinity to the port, projects are identified to construct a new port which will better meet increasing needs and demands. This gives a reason to do research on the possibilities of constructing port facilities at an alternative location. This new port is designed in the Durrs area. To design a new port, information is needed about future trade and traffic anticipated in the future. An effort was made to make some forecasts in order to render this report more realistic. The produced forecasts are bases< on a combination of past data extrapolation, trade and traffic trends as well as insight in the situation of Albania and hinterland connections. The master plan duration, which will be 25 years (20102035), is divided into three periods. Three different growth scenarios were taken into account. This report has been based on the medium growth scenario (4.3%, 3.8% and 3.1 % increase in the total trade of Albania in tons for the three time periods respectively). Assuming a medium growth scenario 1,807,000 tons of dry bulk will be handled in Porto Romano in 2035, 774,000 tons liquid bulk, 1,033,000 tons general cargo and 215,111 TEUs. When Romano Port starts functioning, it is immediately able to accommodate container vessels up to 45,000 dwt. For dry bulk it is assumed that the port should be able to accommodate vessels up to 40,000 dwt. The General Cargo vessels which currently enter the port of Durrs have an average size of 4,000 dwt. Although in general the size of General Cargo vessels remains relative small the average ship is expected to increase up to 10,000 dwt in 2035, with a maximum of 15,000 dwt. The maximum ship size for the liquid bulk terminal is assumed at 25,000 dwt. Taking into account the above forecasts, the future needs concerning terminal areas, berths and equipment were depicted. The container terminal will require a storage area of 440,000 m2 and a berth length of 466 meter. Dry bulk needs an area of 62,000 m2 and a berth length of 240 meter. General cargo will require a storage area of 84,000 m2 and a berth length of 543 meter. For the liquid bulk terminal, no additional berth is required. Ten alternatives were generated based on the future needs above. Three of them were discussed in more detail. Several affecting parameters were taken into account like extensibility, tranquillity, manoeuvrability etc. The comparison among these alternatives was conducted with the help of a multi criteria analyses. The objectivity of this method was verified by doing several sensitivity checks. Finally it leads to a final optimum port layout. Two chapters are written about the breakwater and quay wall. After an analysis, where several breakwater types were discussed and a comparison between a caisson type and rubble mound breakwater was made, the rubble mound breakwater appeared to be the preferred solution. The breakwater armour layer is designed using a single layer of Accropode ll elements. A concrete unit is selected because the required weight of the armour units is substantially larger than the available 2 ton rock in the quarry nearby. For the quay wall, an open pile construction has been selected.8port master plan; trade and traffic forecast; breakwater)uuid:1f99544730784d99801f60b19d1116f2Dhttp://resolver.tudelft.nl/uuid:1f99544730784d99801f60b19d1116f2@Stability of single layer armour units on lowcrested structuresVan der Linde, J.P.eUijttewaal, W.S.J. (mentor); Vrijling, J.K. (mentor); Verhagen, H.J. (mentor); Ten Oever, E. (mentor)
Two dimensional physical model tests are executed with Xbloc armour units on low crested structures to answer the objective. On the basis of findings in the literature study it can be expected that the stability of the Xbloc elements on lowcrested breakwaters is a function of crest freeboard and crest width. The crest freeboard (Rc/Dn) varied from 0.8 to 0.8 in steps of 0.4 and the tested crest widths (Wc) are 3 and 9 armour units wide. Additionally all tests series are executed with a wave steepness of 2 and 4%. All test series are executed once except the reference test series (Rc/Dn = 0, Wc = 3) which are repeated four times to acquire insight into the reliability of the test results. The number of rocking and displaced armour units is registered for the total breakwater, seaside slope and crest (also termed breakwaters sections). Settlements at both the sea and leeward slope leads to openings in the armour layer at the transition from the seaside slope to the crest. As a consequence the interlocking properties of the upper part of the seaside slope and crest decreases a< nd the area of the Xbloc crest elements normal to the wave induced flow increases. Moreover due to settlement the distance between two succeeding rows at the upper part of the slope increases whereas for the lower part of the slope it decreases. This together with the already decreased interlocking properties of the upper rows at the slopes and crest rocking results at both the upper part of the seaside slope and the outer seaward rows of the crest.Xbloc; armour unit; breakwater)uuid:8866d0ca1ecf4ea0bb91f0623a14de94Dhttp://resolver.tudelft.nl/uuid:8866d0ca1ecf4ea0bb91f0623a14de94EEffect of the concrete density on the stability of Xbloc armour unitsVan Zwicht, B.N.M.cUijttewaal, W.S.J. (mentor); Verhagen, H.J. (mentor); Bakker, P.B. (mentor); Stive, M.J.F. (mentor)This thesis is about the influence of the specific weight on the stability of single layer interlocking armour units on rubble mound breakwaters. The hydraulic stability of the Xbloc armour unit is expressed by the stability number which is based on the assumption of dominance of lift, drag and gravity forces. If other forces have significant influence on the stability the power of one for the relative density in the stability number might change. The objective of this research was to determine the influence of the concrete density on the hydraulic stability of Xbloc armour unit and to determine if the stability can be described as a function of the stability number. 2D Physical model tests have been done to determine the influence of the specific weight using concrete densities of 2102, 2465 and 2915 kg/m3 and slope angles of 3:4, 2:3 and 1:2. The size of the model block was held constant for all concrete densities. It is concluded from the model tests that the influence of the specific weight on the hydraulic stability of Xbloc armour layers is not correctly described by the stability number. The stability number underestimates the effect of the specific weight on Xbloc armour units for a slope of 2:3 and steeper. The underestimation increases for steeper slope angles. For a slope of 1:2 the stability number tends to overestimate the effect of the heavy concrete element, where as the normal and light concrete elements are in close resembles with each other and the expected start of damage and failure. A new stability formula for Xbloc armour units is suggested in which the power of the relative density in the stability number is a function of the slope angle and the influence of the slope angle on the hydraulic stability is taken into account.5breakwater; Xbloc; interlocking; armour unit; density#Department of Hydraulic Engineering)uuid:e32b33dc7b644777b32e40f2c79e03a3Dhttp://resolver.tudelft.nl/uuid:e32b33dc7b644777b32e40f2c79e03a3(Stability of a single top layer of cubesVan Buchem, R.V./Verhagen, H.J. (mentor); Stive, M.J.F. (mentor)In an attempt to reduce the cost of breakwaters, several elements have been developed. Examples are Accropodes, Tetrapods and concrete cubes. Previous tests were performed with armour layers consisting of a double layer of cubes. This study is based on a single layer of cubes. The great benefit of a single layer of cubes is that it reduces the total cost of concrete. Another benefit is that because of the shape, cubes are easy to prefabricate. Three important aspects considering the stability of a single armour layer of a breakwater consisting of concrete cubes are addressed: The influence of the wave steepness on the stqbility, the influence of the slope on the stability of the single armour layer, and the influence of the packing density on the stability of the single armour layer. This study is based on a literature study and the results from a test program including a smallscale physical model tests. All conclusions in this thesis have been based on model tests, in which the cubes were placed by hand and placed in a stretching bond (halfsteensverband). In total eighteen tests were performed in the wave flume of the Fluid Mechanics Laboratory of the Faculty of Civil Engineering and Geosciences. Two different sl< opes were tested together with three different packing densities and three different wave steepness. It was found that the gentler slope did not contribute to the stability in this setting using a stretching bond. In fact the model failed earlier than the model with a steeper slope in most cases. The best results were found using a slope of cot? = 1.5. Secondly, the influence of the packing density showed varying failure mechanism. When applying a large packing density (np = 0.20) the damage occurred below SWL. Contrary to small packing densities (np = 0.35) where damage occurred higher than SWL. It was found that, from the tested packing densities, a packing density of 0.28 gives the best results for both slopes. This conclusion is conform the findings of previous tests [Van Gent et al, 1999]. During these tests an optimum packing density of np = 0.25 0.30 was found. Although the cubes were placed randomly in the tests of Van Gent. In this study the cubes were placed in a stretching bond. Finally it was found that a wave steepness of s0p = 0.040.05 causes minimum stability for the armour layer. The tests with a single armour layer of cubes placed in a stretching bond indicated that high stability numbers (Hs/?Dn) can be reached before failure occurs (Nod > 0.2). the tests show that stability numbers as high as 4.5 can be realized before Nod > 0.2 is reached. This study shows that the use of a single top layer of cubes is feasible. The top layer becomes very stable when placed in a stretching bond. In this configuration it is recommended to use a single top layer of cubes instead of a double top layer of cubes. The results during the tests seem to have a strong correlation with pitched stones. Therefore the black box model as well as the analytical method for pitched stones (6xirule) is treated in an attempt to optimize the design rules for different configurations. Finally, in combination with an adjusted 6xirule and the formulae from Van der Meer for loose rock, formulae were developed based on curve fitting.breakwater; cubes
20091009)uuid:c329464e09114b309a8794470f298f9cDhttp://resolver.tudelft.nl/uuid:c329464e09114b309a8794470f298f9cLGenerating electricity from waves at a breakwater in a moderate wave climateSchoolderman, J.E.tMolenaar, W.F. (mentor); Zijlema, M. (mentor); Reedijk, B. (mentor); ten Oever, E. (mentor); Vrijling, J.K. (mentor)
The purpose of this thesis was to develop a preliminary concept design of a wave energy converter. The type of device designed was limited by several starting points which stipulated, among other criteria, a robust structure which can be constructed within a breakwater and can generate electricity from a fairly mild (in the order of Hs=0.51.5m) and regularly occurring wave climate. Integration with a caisson breakwater was selected to ensure survivability. Three concepts using the theories of wave overtopping, wave runup, and wave pressure were evaluated. A multicriteria analysis was performed on the three concepts. Concepts were scored based on power output, functionality in wide range of conditions, ease of construction, and theory reliability. Theory reliability was scored based on the three aforementioned criteria. The concept analysis concluded the most promising device to further investigate was the concept based on the theory of wave pressure. This device excelled in (theoretical) output having the highest peak power and wider power curves. In the concept, wave pressure is exerted on an underwater opening. This opening leads water into a pipe with a gradual constriction. This constriction increases the pressure allowing the water to be brought to an optimal level above MWL. Through a turbine the water is returned to MWL. A model was built with three different opening ratios and three separate basins open to the wave flume at the bottom. A series of tests were performed of varying wave climates and crest freeboards. During the tests the head difference was measured between the internal basins and the water elevation at the rear of the model. The holes in the bo< ttom of the basins allowed for constant flow of water out of the basins and a calculation of flow rate based on the hydraulic head was required. This allowed for the calculation of the theoretical power generated during the tests. Additionally, the input wave power was known so the device efficiency could be calculated for each test allowing for the identification of the optimal geometry and the generation of a fullscale efficiency curve. The device was evaluated at two design locations in Panama and Japan. The wave climate, tidal influence, system headloss, and sea level rise were calculated in order to discover the power generation at each location. Revenue associated with the generation of electricity was calculated to give an indication of the device s cost effectiveness. It was found that sea level rise has a negligible impact on efficiency if sea level rise is appropriately accounted for. The impact is in the order of 1.5% over 50 years if the rise is assumed to be 80cm over 100 years. Including sea level rise, the device has been calculated to generate an average of 16,413 and 5,766 kWh/m/yr at Panama and Japan, respectively. The report concludes that the proposed design can be constructed using existing techniques for caisson construction. However, the design must be further optimised and tested in order to become a fully feasible wave energy converter.nwave; energy; converter; caisson; breakwater; pressure; wave energy converter; wave pressure; renewable energy
20090927)uuid:fe20c5e2051e45feaaa5aac0bb113e18Dhttp://resolver.tudelft.nl/uuid:fe20c5e2051e45feaaa5aac0bb113e18)Flow velocity at rubble mound breakwatersNammuniKrohn, J.0Verhagen, H.J. (mentor); Uijttewaal, W. (mentor)Measurements of flow velocities due to wave action on top of shallow toe structures in front of a rubble mound breakwater. Laboratory tests in the Fluid Mechanics lab, TU Delft..toe structure; rubble mound; breakwater; waves)uuid:97eebc0a460f465e95d91cc9a98bab39Dhttp://resolver.tudelft.nl/uuid:97eebc0a460f465e95d91cc9a98bab39*Stability of Iceland type berm breakwatersSveinbjornsson, P.I.Stive, M.J.F. (mentor); Verhagen, H.J. (mentor); Uijttewaal, W.S. (mentor); Caljouw, M. (mentor); Icelandic Maritime Administration (contributor)bA major part of the breakwaters constructed in the world are the socalled conventional rouble mound breakwaters, which consist of a core, a filter layer and a heavy armour layer. An alternative to the conventional rouble mound breakwater is a berm breakwater. Berm breakwaters have mainly developed in two directions over the last couple of decades. On the one hand a dynamically stable structure, where reshaping is allowed. And on the other hand a more stable multi layered structure often referred to as Icelandic type berm breakwater. When there is a rock quarry, relatively close to the construction site, which is dedicated to the breakwater project, the Icelandic type has proven to be very attractive economically. The basic reason for that is that unlike the other types the Icelandic type utilizes the quarry 100%. This M.Sc. thesis focuses on the Icelandic type berm breakwater. Before an Icelandic type berm breakwater is constructed the stones are divided into classes depending on their size. The smaller armour stones are then placed rather deep where the influence of the wave attack is less, as well as on the rear end of the structure, while the largest stones are placed where the largest wave attack is expected. The goals of the project are the following: a) Design rules for the transaction of stone classes with depth have not yet evolved and the main goal of this project was to develop a stability criterion for the stones in that area (Primary goal). b) Stones on berm. Since the total amount of the largest stones (Class I) is usually limited, the combination of the amount of large stones on the berm and down the berm is important (Secondary goal). c) Recession. Recession will be measured in each test and thereby a large database on the subject will be made available for further research on the sub< ject (Secondary goal). d) The location of the transition of the original and the reshaped profiles as the berm height changes as well as for different stone setups. This is also closely related to the primary goal of the project (Secondary goal). Numbers of model tests were performed in order to reach those goals.*breakwater; berm; armour; layer; stabilityBTU Delft, Civil Engineering and Geosciences, Hydraulic Engineering)uuid:a1848eea754e4e8e8dd9f592d385d8bcDhttp://resolver.tudelft.nl/uuid:a1848eea754e4e8e8dd9f592d385d8bc3Armour layer stability on a bermed slope breakwaterDijkstra, O.P.J.Stive, M.J.F. (mentor); Verhagen, H.J. (mentor); Uijttewaal, W.S.J. (mentor); Spaan, G.B.H. (mentor); Van Gent, M.R.A. (mentor); Van Oord (contributor)
In coastal regions where the land is sensitive to erosion, but also for harbours and ports, numerous types of defensive structures have been developed to protect it from the effects of incident waves. More recently breakwaters have been constructed which combine the stability characteristics of a conventional twolayered uniform sloped breakwater with the wave energy dispersive character of a berm breakwater. This type is referred to as a 'breakwater with a bermed slope' or a 'bermed sloped breakwater' In order to develop more insight in the development of damage on bermed sloped breakwaters, smallscale experiments have been performed in which the two most important parameters related to a berm were tested. These governing parameters were the relative berm length and the relative water level with a range of respectively 0.00 < B/Lm1,0 < 0.35 and 0.8 < Rc/Hm0 < 0.7. It is concluded that the development of damage on a bermed slope has a similar, but more stable, trajectory as predicted for a uniform slope with the stability formula of Van Gent (2003). The increase in stability can be indicated with a constant factor rD. Also the damage level parameters for 'start of damage' and 'failure' on a bermed slope are independent of the governing parameters and correspond to the values of a uniform sloped breakwater. The influence of the governing parameters on the stability of the lower slope for 'start of damage' is shown in Figure 1. Conceivable trendlines are drawn for constant values of Rc/Hm0 and B/Lm1,0. It can be concluded that when regarding constant values of Rc/Hm0 the test results show, for initial values of the relative berm length, an increase in stability as B/Lm1,0 increases. As the relative berm length gets increasingly larger, the increase in stability indicates a horizontal limit. Also the range for which the relative berm length has a positive contribution on the increase in stability is strongly related to the relative water level. For Rc/Hm0 < 0 this range is small but it widens quickly as the water level approaches the berm level. As the water level on the berm increases, it gradually becomes smaller again. A research by WLDelft Hydraulics (Vermeer (1986)), which performed similar tests but for Rc/Hm0 > 0.9, showed different results. The development of the increase in stability for constant values of the relative berm length showed a peak at B/L0 = 0.15. This peak seemed to flatten out as the water level on the berm became smaller. This process could possible link the findings of this study to the findings of Vermeer (1986), however, more research has to be done to confirm this hypothesis. Finally the two design principles, which in practice are used as indication of the increase in stability, were validated with the results of this study. The first principle applies stability formulae for uniform slopes on the average slope of a bermed profile. The second principle adopts the characteristics of lowcrested structures on the bermed profile. The correlation between the predicted increase in stability and the results of the test series was very low. Apparently the complexity of the processes related to the (in)stability of armour layers on a bermed slope can not be overcome by means of the design principles. This is most probably caused by the influence of the return curre< nt, which has large impact on the stability, is not accounted for. Therefore both principles are not well suited to predict the increase in stability of armour layers on bermed slopes.)uuid:1422935a34084e11bebc667d289487b3Dhttp://resolver.tudelft.nl/uuid:1422935a34084e11bebc667d289487b3JConcrete armour units for breakwaters: A study on the structural integrityFozein Kwanke, N.J.C.gWalraven, J.C. (mentor); Fraaij, A.L.A. (mentor); Bouwmeester, W.J. (mentor); Koenders, E.A.B. (mentor)
One of the most basic types of breakwaters is the rubble mound breakwater which in essence is a heap of stones consisting of a core of fine material covered by an armour layer of big rock or concrete elements. Mostly unreinforced, these concrete elements exist in different sizes and geometries varying from massive concrete cubes to more complicated shapes like Dolos, Tetrapode, Accropode or Xbloc. The reaction of cement with water is exothermic and an unequal heating up and cooling down of the massive units can lead to too high tensile stresses which lead to cracking in case the actual tensile strength of the concrete is exceeded. Therefore, in this thesis, the main focus is on the production and hardening process of the units. What internal mechanisms during the hardening stage might lead to cracking and/or breakage of these colossal concrete armour units? For six different concrete mixes, the thermal and strength properties were experimentally determined and analyzed. The found results were used as input for a numerical hardening model. The model permits to give an estimation of the expected temperature rise, the eigenstress development as well as an indication of the possible cracking trajectories. Using the probabilistic approach of Van Breugel, an assessment on the risk of failure could be done at material level. A further analysis using the MohrCoulomb criterion gave also the possibility to evaluate possible breakage patterns at element level. For a reference mix, a parametrical study was done regarding the influence of specific hardening circumstances like type of formwork, moment of removal or the type of mix used. In a last step, the implemented hardening model has been used to analyze a specific casestudy in the Netherlands where concrete armour units are severely damaged. The conducted research put in evidence the importance of maintaining the eigenstresses at low values in order to reduce considerably the risk on cracking. The different parametrical studies showed that different factors play a prominent role in getting a higher or lower risk of cracking, namely: the choice of a specific type of formwork, the demoulding stage, the sizes of the elements and the casting and environmental temperatures. Moreover, the implementation of the model to other concrete mixes, revealed the importance of the mix choice on the temperature and stress development. In case for instance fillers or binders are used to replace partly the needed amount of cement, it is important to make a thorough study on their quality and reactivity. It can be concluded the elaborated hardening model gives a good indication of expected temperature rise, stresses and cracking patterns and that the adopted calculation methods give a good indication of weak and critical points in the elements and possible cracking and breakage patterns and mechanisms. The results show high probabilities on crack occurrence and crack patterns that agree very well with the block damages observed at the practical case in the Netherlands. Further investigations regarding the influence of the shape, an analysis on micro scale of weak points in the structure and the effect of the quality of binders are recommended to get a broader scope and to extend the hardening model which was setup. Moreover, it is of crucial importance designers integrate all together the aspects from concrete technology and hydraulic/ coastal engineering point of views to come up with a final design for concrete armour units of breakwaters.!breakwater; armour unit; concrete)uuid:00654c23ac524e2da3348cb4ab132e03Dhtt< p://resolver.tudelft.nl/uuid:00654c23ac524e2da3348cb4ab132e03;Breakwater stability with damaged single layer armour unitsDe Rover, R.A.hStive, M.J.F. (mentor); Verhagen, H.J. (mentor); Uijttewaal, W.S.J. (mentor); Van den Berge, A. (mentor)WAt breakwater and seawall projects at Port St Francis and Scarborough breakage of single layer interlocking armour units was observed. It is generally assumed that breakage of single layer armour units has a significant negative effect on the hydraulic stability of a rubble mound breakwater. The significant decrease of interlocking capacity and mass of the broken units would lead to displacement of these units and surrounding units. The broken parts of the damaged units would act like projectiles. The waves would "throw" these broken parts back and forth to the armour layer. More armour units would break due to the impact of these broken parts leading to rapid damage progression of the armour layer and finally to failure of the total construction. This damage behaviour has however never been confirmed. The main objective of this research is to determine the effect of single layer armour unit breakage on the hydraulic armour layer stability and potential damage progression. A 2dimensional model of a rubble mound breakwater with typical cross section was tested with individual and clustered positioned broken Xbloc armour units around the still water line. The residual stability of the armour layer was determined. The armour unit displacement and damage progression was assessed. It is concluded that breakage of single layer armour units has a significant negative effect on start of damage of the armour layer. Breakage of single layer armour units has no significant effect on failure of the armour layer. This damage behaviour leads to a long and gradual damage progression. This type of damage progression looks more like the damage progression of an armour layer consisting of riprap rock. The majority of the broken parts show little to no movement. It is therefore unlikely that rapid damage progression occurs due to broken parts damaging other units.breakwater; stability; damaged; armour; units)uuid:c33e4b06ead74e4dba7d6c2b97184bf8Dhttp://resolver.tudelft.nl/uuid:c33e4b06ead74e4dba7d6c2b97184bf8Open filters in breakwaters with a sand core: Study into the stability of granular geometrically open, hydraulically sandopen filters in breakwaters with a sand coreOckeloen, W.J.Thesis study into an alternative design for breakwaters made of granular materials like sand and quarry stone. In this design, the breakwater is constructed of a sand core and a layer of large stones directly on top of it, without the traditional filter layers inbetween. The single layer of stones serves as one open filter layer that has to reduce the wave induced flow and turbulence well enough to keep the erosion of sand through the filter layer within an acceptable amount. By accepting a controlled amount of erosion and necessity of maintenance, the alternative design can be very costeffective over the lifespan of the structure. In cooperation with Van Oord, one of the world market leaders in dredging and coastal engineering, a research into the applicability of very open filters on sand cores has been initiated at Delft University of Technology. My thesis study is the second consecutive in this larger research that has the goal of finding a good theoretical description of the occurring erosion processes and developing a practical design tool for breakwaters with a very open filter layer on a sand core. The focus of my study is the relation between the wave height, period and regularity and the amount of erosion occurring with it. Physical model tests for this study have been performed in the long sediment transport flume of the Fluid Mechanics Laboratory. This flume is equipped with a wave generator that loads the structure with the desired wave spectrum. The results have been analysed for relations between loading and erosion.Vopen filter; breakwater; geometrically open filter; hydraulically sand open; sa< nd core)uuid:3a704a55139d4d498a5e1e9cbd051947Dhttp://resolver.tudelft.nl/uuid:3a704a55139d4d498a5e1e9cbd051947Coastal defence for Centro Habana: Integral coastal defence for section 4 of the Malecn and hurricane generated hydraulic boundary conditionsFBaart, S.A.; Van Kruchten, Y.J.G.; McCall, R.T.; Van Nieuwkoop, J.C.C. Master project report. Havana is protected from the sea s severity by a seawall which is called the Malecn. The study area of this report is section 4 of the Malecn which more or less matches the coast of the district Centro Habana . Since the construction of the Malecn the hinterland has frequently been flooded due to storms and hurricanes in the Gulf of Mexico and on the Atlantic Ocean. Recent inundations were caused by hurricanes Michelle (2001) and Wilma (2005). Among the damaged buildings was the Almejeiras hospital, one of Cuba s most important. The inundations are mainly caused by waves overtopping the seawall. In the present situation the seawall is 4.3 m above MSL and during design conditions 274 litres of water will be discharged per metre over the seawall on time average. Other contributing mechanisms are rainfall and wave penetration into the drainage system, which are in the order of 10 l/s/m. Because the overtopping is the most important cause the main objective of the report is to find feasible alternatives to drastically decrease the overtopping. A solution has to be integrated with the drainage systems to prevent build up of the water mass in the hinterland. First research was done on the causes. With the findings a list of conditions and a list of demands for the solution was formed. Directly after, all sorts of solutions were considered and weighed in a Multi Criteria Analysis, resulting in a berm in front of the seawall and a submerged detached breakwater as the best alternatives. These have been investigated further. Both the berm and breakwater are considered feasible. The berm must be made of rubble with a nominal diameter for the armour layer of 1.0 m. At the crest (MSL + 2 m) the berm is 6 m wide and the bottom ends about 30 m seaward of the wall. Unfavourable aspects of the berm are that it is situated above MSL and that its height makes the permeability performance questionable. The breakwater should be a rubble mound breakwater. A monolithic breakwater proved unfavourable due to the required width and the high transmission. The rubble breakwater is about 90 m off shore. The armour layer consists of 1.5 m rocks, the crest, situated at MSL, is 10 m wide and the height is 7.3 m. The breakwater is more expensive because it requires more material. It matches the list of conditions and demands better and therefore its value is also much higher than the berm s. The secondary objective of the report is finding hydraulic boundary conditions which are generated by hurricanes. To reach this objective first a literature study on hurricanes was done to gain knowledge of wind generation and wave spectrum generation by wind fields. For this analytical and empirical approaches were investigated. An analysis was done on hurricanes that have past Cuba in the past century. This resulted in parameters that affect the sea severity. The most important parameters are the fetch and the forward speed of the hurricane. From the study on the parameters two worst paths of hurricanes for the Havana coast have been derived.$Havanna; Hurricane; Cuba; breakwater)uuid:8d47e09962194ac6bc8d85050e884178Dhttp://resolver.tudelft.nl/uuid:8d47e09962194ac6bc8d85050e884178IProbabilistic design of the crosssection of the new Rotterdam breakwaterGarcia Beses, A.J.Nowadays the most important sectors in the strategy for the future of the port of Rotterdam are container handling, chemicals and distribution. To offer these sectors the opportunity to grow and renew, space is needed. By means of the construction of Maasvlakte II this space can be given. This land reclamation is planned to be located in the area between the EuroMaasgeul in the north and the current Maasvlakte in the west and the extended demarc< ation line in the south. The planned extension will be done in two phases. The first one includes 700 ha with a length of breakwater of 2.7 km, whose construction is planned to start in 2006/07 and the second phase, which includes 300 ha more, with a length of breakwater of 1.3 km is planned to start in 2013/2023. In this study the crosssection of the breakwater, which protects the new area of the land reclamation, is analysed. Classical deterministic design could provide a preliminary geometry for the breakwater, but the dimensions of it are too big and also the costs. Therefore a probabilistic optimization could be made in order to check if a reduction or growth, in the geometry, can provide an economical optimum geometry with a substantial save. First a classical deterministic design is made. The most important elements of the crosssection are determined with the classical formulas and design guidelines. The following elements are analysed:  The armour layer  The toe  The secondary armour  The core  The filter system to establish the supporting bottom material  The crest height When the dimensions are given for all the elements, the geometry of the breakwater is established for the deterministic design. Afterwards the construction costs are determined for the breakwater solution. The deterministic design results in an element weight of 18.8 tons (6.6 m3) and crest height of NAP+18 m. Economic consequences of the different failure mechanisms are not taken into account. The crest height is normally dependent on the construction method. In that case, the construction method does not produce a sensitive reduction in the breakwater geometry because the security level required in the determination of the crest height is too restrictive. After the deterministic design, the probabilistic optimization takes place..+breakwater; Maasvlakte; probablistic design)uuid:3a70e7cfc63d46d1a3bc18f6cbc44eaaDhttp://resolver.tudelft.nl/uuid:3a70e7cfc63d46d1a3bc18f6cbc44eaaUInvloed van plaatsingsdichtheid op de stabiliteit van 'armour layers' van golfbrekersVan den Bosch, A.F.M.wd'Angremond, K. (mentor); Fontijn, H.L. (mentor); Zitman, T.J. (mentor); Olthof, J. (mentor); Van Gent, M.R.A. (mentor)Door de jaren heen is er veel onderzoek gedaan naar golfbrekers en de stabiliteit van de 'armour layer'. Hieruit is gebleken dat de plaatsingsdichtheid van de 'armour layer' elementen een belangrijke parameter is. De doelstelling van dit onderzoek is om inzicht te verkrijgen in de invloed van de plaatsingsdichtheid op de stabiliteit van kubussen in een dubbele 'armour layer' en tetrapoden en breuksteen in een enkele 'armour layer' van een 'rubble mound' golfbreker. Er is in dit onderzoek gekozen voor het onderzoeken van deze specifieke elementen, omdat deze het meeste worden toegepast. Tevens wordt hiermee aangesloten op voorgaande onderzoeken. Omdat er al relatief veel onderzoek is gedaan naar kubussen in een enkele 'armour layer' is er voor gekozen om voor kubussen een dubbele 'armour layer' toe te passen. De experimenten werden uitgevoerd in de Sedimenttransportgoot in het Laboratorium voor Vloeistofmechanica van de Faculteit Civiele Techniek en Geowetenschappen van de Technische Universiteit Delft. In deze golfgoot werd een schaalmodel van een golfbreker geconstrueerd. De plaatsingsdichtheid werd bij kubussen en tetrapoden gevarieerd door het wijzigen van de volumieke porositeit van de 'armour layer' en bij breuksteen door het wijzigen van de laagdikte. Bij breuksteen werd bovendien de taludhelling gevarieerd en de gradering. Na het aanbrengen van de 'armour layer' werd een onregelmatig golfveld van 1000 golven op de golfbreker losgelaten met een bepaalde significante golfhoogte. Hierbij werd gebruik gemaakt van een JONSWAPspectrum. De significante golfhoogte werd telkens opgevoerd totdat de constructie bezweek of de golfmachine de maximale op te wekken golfhoogte had bereikt. Kenmerkend faalmechanisme bij alle elementen is het 'rocken' van een element, dat uiteindelijk leidt tot het wegspoelen ervan. Onder 'rocken' wordt verstaan het bewege< n van een element zonder van positie te veranderen. Dit verschijnsel vindt plaats rond de waterlijn. De toegepaste plaatsingsdichtheden bij kubussen blijken alle stabielere constructies op te leveren dan bij een in de praktijk toegepaste plaatsingsdichtheid. Hieronder wordt de plaatsingsdichtheid verstaan, welke in prototype golfbrekers wordt toegepast. Het blijkt echter dat bij een toename van de plaatsingsdichtheid de 'armour layer' zich steeds meer gaat gedragen als een zetsteenbekleding. De stabiliteit neemt als gevolg hiervan af bij toenemende plaatsingsdichtheid. Typerende faalmechanismen van een bekleding als afschuiven en oplichten beginnen dan op te treden in het schaalmodel. Berekeningen lijken aan te tonen dat de faalmechanismen in het model overeenkomen met de werkelijkheid. Tetrapoden leveren bij verhoging van de plaatsingsdichtheid steeds stabielere constructies op. Desondanks lijken ze ongeschikt voor gebruik in een enkele 'armour layer', omdat door de vorm van de elementen het filter al aangetast kan worden zonder dat er elementen zijn verdwenen. AIs gevolg van de haakweerstand is er een rotatie van een element nodig om dit te verwijderen. Met behulp van een rekenmethode is de hiervoor benodigde belasting versus de sterkte bepaald. Het blijkt dat de stabiliteit toeneemt bij toename van de plaatsingsdichtheid. Bovendien volgt uit de rekenmethode dat de elementen zich in de werkeIijkheid op dezelfde wijze zullen gedragen als in het schaalmodeL De laagste plaatsingsdichtheid wordt gekenmerkt door een progressief bezwijkgedrag. De meeste schade veroorzakende 'collapsing' golven blijken dan minder vaak op te treden. Kenmerkend voor breuksteen is de opstuwing van elementen onder de waterIijn als gevolg van 'collapsing' golven met als resuItaat een ruimere pakking rond de waterIijn. Breuksteen met een wijde gradering blijkt minder stabiel dan breuksteen met een nauwe gradering."breakwater; armour; tetrapod; cube)uuid:ab1b820eed76432880d71eeafb6ac09fDhttp://resolver.tudelft.nl/uuid:ab1b820eed76432880d71eeafb6ac09f^The influence of structural permeability on armour layer stability of rubble mound breakwatersDe Heij, J.The first one who studied the problem of armour layer stability was Iribarren (1938). Iribarren derived stability criteria that were based on the acting physical processes on the slope of a structure. In the stability criteria of Iribarren only the influence of a few structural and hydraulic parameters were taken into account. In 1988 Van der Meer derived a stability relation in which the stability of armour layers was depending on several hydraulic and structural parameters. Van der Meer concluded that the stability of armour layers is strongly influenced by the composition of a structure. He implemented the influence of the composition of the structure in a permeability coefficient, P. This permeability coefficient is defined for four different structures. Van der Meer is a good tool for the design of armour layers, it has little physical background. The empirical character of the stability relation is found back in the definition of the permeability coefficient. If a different structure is designed than tested by Van der Meer, an estimation of this permeability coefficient has to be made. Since the permeability has large influence on the stability, new methods should be developed to calculate armour layer stability. Due to the irregularity of armour stones it would take a lot of effort to obtain a full analytical solution for the problem of armour layer stability. However, a good attempt into the direction of an analytical solution can be made, since good models are available that describe the water motion on and in coastal structures. An example of such a model is the model ODIFLOCS. ODIFLOCS stands for Qne dimensional flow Qn and in foastal structures. With ODIFLOCS it is possible to calculate the velocities on a coastal structure for certain hydraulic and structural parameters. With these velocities the hydrodynamic forces on the stones in the armour layer can be calculated. Iribarren (1938) prop< osed a model for armour layer stability. He assumed a hydrodynamic drag force that act on a stone, which is caused by the runup or rundown, parallel to the slope of the structure. Two stability criteria for the stability of rock on a slope can be distinguished, which are upward and downward stability respectively. The drag force can be written as a function of the velocity on the slope of a breakwater. Iribarren was not able to calculate these velocities, since no models were available to calculate them, and estimated them by wave celerity in shallow water. Van den Berk (1999) was able to proceed the approach of Iribarren and calculated the velocities with the numerical model ODIFLOCS. He modelled homogeneous structures and calculated the armour layer stability for homogeneous structures for several hydraulic and structural conditions. He found that his results and the results ofVan der Meer were strongly correlated. In this research a next step will be made to see whether physical background can be given to the influence of structural permeability on armour layer stability. Structures with different permeabilities will be modelled and the velocities on the slope will be calculated for different hydraulic conditions. With the use of these velocities, which will be calculated with the numerical model ODIFLOCS, the stability can be determined. The test showed that the strongest increase in stability was found for gentle slopes in combination with low and high wave steepness. The test with steep slopes gave significant lower influence of structural permeability, compared with gentle slopes, on armour layer stability. This is contradicting with the findings of Van der Meer, who found a strong influence ofpenneability on the stability for high values of the surf similarity parameter. This shows that the penneabilities that are modelled in this research do not correspond to those tested by Van der Meer.&numerical model; breakwater; stability)uuid:3f96aed6c00f415a944db8a2b33d598dDhttp://resolver.tudelft.nl/uuid:3f96aed6c00f415a944db8a2b33d598dnEen probabilistisch model voor de vergelijking van twee golfbrekertypen op basis van economische optimalisatieLaenen, K.C.J.fVrijling, J.K. (mentor); De Ridder, H.A.J. (mentor); Tutuarima, W.H. (mentor); Voortman, H.G. (mentor)Breakwaters can be divided into two maintypes: the classic (rubblemound) type breakwater and the vertical (caisson) type breakwater. In general it is assumed that vertical type breakwaters are more economic than classic type breakwaters, due to the quadratic increase of volume of material needed for the classic type breakwater as a function of the waterdepth. In addition to the vertical (composed) type breakwater which has a linear increase. In this study an inquiry has been made to determine the influence of other factors (besides waterdepth) on the economic choice between a classic type breakwater or a vertical type breakwater. To make a fair comparison between the two breakwater types, the influence of the factors on the economic optimal crossection design has been determined. In order to generate economically optimal crossections of both classic and vertical breakwaters an economic optimization model has been made. This model generates, after input of locally dependent hydraulic, geotechnical and economic boundary conditions and material properties, economically optimal crossections for both types of breakwaters. Apart from this the model generates (also for noneconomically optimal crossections) total lifetime cost (construction cost and risk), (optimal) chances of failure and material quantities. The model also generates the contribution (in percentage) ofthe different stochastic variables towards the total chance of failure. To determine the risk three scenarios of failure have been taken into account: 1) Transmitted waves behind the breakwater are too high resulting in a disturbance of the transshipment operation (SLS). 2) Transmitted waves behind the breakwater are too high so that entrance to the harbour will be prevented (SLS). 3) Collapsing ofthe breakwa< ter which also leads to a decrease of the protection of the harbour from scenarios 1 and 2 (ULS). In this study the model is applied to an existing case: the Noorderdam breakwater belonging to the project of extension of Maasvlakte 2, near Hook of Holland. It appears that the totallifetome cost of the classic type breakwater is 18% higher than the vertical type breakwater. For both types of breakwaters the total lifetime cost exists of +//90% construction cost and +/10% risk. Because of this the economic choice between both types of breakwaters is mainly determined by factors which influence this construction cost. The construction cost for the classic type breakwater is determined for 50% by the cost ofrubblemound in the core. The construction cost for the vertical type breakwater is determined for 75% by the cost ofthe concrete in the caisson. The risk of the classic type breakwater is mainly determined by the occurrence of scenario 1 and for the vertical type breakwater only by the occurrence of scenario 3. The risk for both types of breakwaters is mainly determined by the uncertainty in the hydraulic boundary conditions. For the Noorderdam breakwater a sensitivity analysis has been carried out to determine the influence of certain factors on the optimal choice of breakwater type, which shows that the waterdepth indeed influences greatly the choice of breakwater type. Other factors which greatly influence the economic choice are the unit price ofconcrete and rubblemound. If these are not known with an accuracy of +125%, nothing definite can be said about the choice. The scenario 3 damage cost, the percentage ofconcrete ofthe caisson, the length and the planned lifetime of the breakwater can't influence this choice. In this study only 7 factors have been analysed. However, with the designed economic optimization model the sensitivity of more factors can be analysed. Certain factors can be changed at the same time also.breakwater; optimisation)uuid:dd9c768974d44ae18482fc9643613eadDhttp://resolver.tudelft.nl/uuid:dd9c768974d44ae18482fc9643613ead?De golfbelasting op kruinmuren boven op stortstenen golfbrekersDeiters, B.bTutuarima, W. (mentor); Reedijk, J.S. (mentor); De Groot, M.B. (mentor); D' Angremond, K. (mentor)Dit verslag geeft een beschrijving van een onderzoek naar de golfbelasting van kruinmuren boven op breukstenen golfbrekers. Een kruinmuur is een betonnen element dat boven op een golfbreker geplaatst wordt. De voornaamste functie is het terugbrengen van de overslag zonder toepassing van zeer veel stortsteen en toplaagelementen. In dit onderzoek wordt aangenomen dat de golfbelasting tegen de toplaag wordt doorgegeven aan de onderliggende lagen. De golfbelasting tegen de kruinmuur is op te delen is in een golfklap en een quasistatische belasting. Het maximum van de golfklap doet zich voor als de watertong tegen de muur aanslaat. Het maximum van de quasistatische belasting doet zich voor als het steenskelet voor en onder de muur met water verzadigd zijn en de waterdruk daar verhoogd is. Om een goed beeld te krijgen van de belasting op een kruinmuur is het nodig de golfoploop te voorspellen. Battjes bepaalde dat de golfoploop afhankelijk was van de brekerparameter. Van der Meer heeft met behulp van het onderzoek van Van der Meer en door middel van het fitten van meetresultaten van modelproeven een empirische benadering ontwikkeld voor het bepalen van de golfoploop gerelateerd aan de overschrijdingskans. Met behulp van de data van de onderstaande modelproefseries zijn de verschillende berekeningsmethodes onderzocht: De modelproeven van het Waterloopkundig Laboratorium De modelproeven op de golfbreker van Gijon, uitgevoerd door Losada De modelproeven van Pedersen Met behulp van de data uit de drie modelproefseries zijn de relaties onderzocht tussen de belasting op de kruinmuur en de gebruikte golfbrekerconfiguraties en zeeconditities. Het blijkt dat er een lineaire relatie bestaat tussen de horizontale kracht en het produkt van de golfhoogte en de golfperiode gedeeld door het vrijboord van de berm. Als eerste or< de benadering geldt dit ook voor de druk in het hoekpunt en de verticale kracht. Tevens blijkt dat de opwaartse druk tegen de onderkant van de kruinmuur parabolisch loopt. Over de ligging van het nulpunt kan nog weinig gezegd worden. Tenslotte zijn er berekeningen gedaan met de andere methodes. De uitkomsten hiervan zijn ook vergeleken met de modelproeven. De volgende conclusies kunnen hieruit getrokken worden: De methode van Burcharth onderschat de belastingen. De methode van Gunbak overschat de belastingen. De methode van Pedersen kan alleen gebruikt worden als de golfbreker voldoet aan de door Pedersen opgestelde randvoorwaarden. De methode van Jensen beschrijft de horizontale kracht goed als de empirische coefficienten voor de golfbreker configuratie bepaald zijn aan de hand van resultaten van modelproeven op die golfbreker. De methode van Losada is beperkt te gebruiken. Dit komt doordat deze methode opgesteld is aan de hand van proeven met regelmatige golven en doordat het fundatieniveau van deze kruinmuur onder het stilwaterniveau ligt. De methode van het WL beschrijft de belastingen nauwkeurig als de kruinmuur niet boven de berm uitsteekt. De invloed van de hoogte van het onbeschermde gedeelte van de kruinmuur moet onderzocht worden. De invloed van de doorlatendheid van de golfbreker moet onderzocht worden. De invloed van de bermbreedte en de fundatiehoogte boven het stilwaterniveau van de onderzijde van de kruinmuur moet onderzocht worden.Gcrest wall; wave wall; rubble mound breakwater; breakwater; overtopping)uuid:edd87132f7ea4a53ac5a74aa361a079eDhttp://resolver.tudelft.nl/uuid:edd87132f7ea4a53ac5a74aa361a079eDWave runup on a rough, permeable slope of a rubble mound breakwater
Wittteman, E.fFontijn, H.L. (mentor); Van der Meulen, T. (mentor); Tutuarima, W. (mentor); D' Angremond, K. (mentor)
Although a lot is known nowadays about the runup on smooth and impermeable slopes as well as the runup on slopes covered with a rock armour layer, the physical properties of the armour layer of a rubble mound breakwater are not incorporated in the relations describing the runup on a breakwater s slope. The roughness of a slope and its permeability, which can be described by a characteristic diameter of the armour unit and the porosity of the layer, are not used in the description of the runup. This report is an attempt to get insight into the influence that the roughness and the permeability of a slope have on the runup on this slope. In order to achieve this goal, nondimensional parameters are derived describing the roughness of a slope and its permeability. Firstly, the framework of the design of a breakwater is given in order to place the runup on a rough, permeable slope. The runup itself is dealt with separately. Experiments were performed in order to obtain data that can be used to quantify the influence of the roughness of the slope and its permeability. The experiments were performed leaving the permeability of the whole structure out of consideration. To achieve a difference in porosity of the armour layer, rock armour units were used as well as tetrapod armour units. Two approaches of data analysis are applied on the data obtained from these experiments. This first approach describes the runup on a rough, permeable slope by a combination of a roughness parameter, a permeability parameter and the breaker parameter. The roughness parameter and the permeability parameter are derived by forming nondimensional parameters that describe roughness and permeability. The runup, usually made nondimensional using the wave height (H) is made nondimensional here using the nominal diameter. This gave better results in combination with the derived parameters describing the roughness and the permeability of a slope. The second approach describes the runup on a rough, permeable slope by using the relative runup Ru/H and a newly derived nondimensional parameter resembling the Iribarren parameter, but incorporating the influence of the permeability of the armour layer. When the relative runup is put against the Iribarren< parameter and is put against the newly derived nondimensional parameter, the appearing scatter is less in the latter case. In both approaches, two relations describing the runup on a rough permeable slope are derived. One for breaking waves and one for nonbreaking waves. For the second approach, the found relations have a significant resemblance with the known formulae for runup on a slope covered with rock armour units, derived by van der Meer and Stam. When the relations derived following the both approaches are compared, the relations derived by the second approach are the relations that give the best feeling with the physical processes as they occur. The relation for nonbreaking waves, derived using the first approach, is applied on data obtained from physical model tests on a breakwater covered with tetrapod armour units. The calculated nondimensional runup is compared with the measured nondimensional runup. The results show that the permeability of the whole structure can not be neglected, especially in the case of nonbreaking waves.#runup; breakwater; permeable slope)uuid:6390112d6c5f485798ab227b51c3fd79Dhttp://resolver.tudelft.nl/uuid:6390112d6c5f485798ab227b51c3fd79Trotseren door demobiliseren: Een onderzoek naar de technische en financile haalbaarheid van het gedeeltelijk demobiliseren van golfdempende constructies teneinde extreme belastingsituaties te weerstaanRoelofs, M.vTutuarima, W. (mentor); Kuijper, H.K.T. (mentor); Burger, G. (mentor); Fontijn, H.L. (mentor); Vrijling, J.K. (mentor)Research to the technical and financial feasibility for a partly demobilization of a wave reducing device (breakwater) to survive extreme wave loads, with a case study for the island of Sint Maarten, Netherlands Antilles.(extreme loads; breakwater; survivability)uuid:1a40fd865fd242699973f77e4441c7eaDhttp://resolver.tudelft.nl/uuid:1a40fd865fd242699973f77e4441c7eaBKostenbeschouwing van conventionele golfbrekers met betonelementenSchepers, M.R.gTutuarima, W.H. (mentor); Van der Meulen, T. (mentor); Visser, P.J. (mentor); D' Angremond, K. (mentor)
In een gebied als Nederland met een relatiefflauw oplopende kust, heeft de conventionele stortstenen golfbreker in het verleden de voorkeur gekregen boven andere typen golfbrekers. Binnen de brekerzone wordt de golfhoogte begrensd door de waterdiepte, wat de keuze ten aanzien van de conventioneIe stortstenen golfbreker bevestigt aangezien de golfbreker lichter gedimensioneerd kan worden. Relatief lichte stortsteen is economisch aantrekkelijk te produceren in de steengroeve. Echter, bij toepassing in dieper water zal de golfbreker zwaarder gedimensioneerd moeten worden aIs gevolg van toenemende ontwerpgolfhoogte. Dit vraagt om relatief zware steen in de toplaag. De produktie van zware steen in de groeve leidt tot een grote overproduktie van de lichtere stortsteen, waardoor de produktiekosten voor de zware steen onevenredig hoog wordt. Vervanging van de zware steen door betonelementen zou tot een goedkopere oplossing kunnen leiden. In deze studie is voor een fictieve golfbrekerlayout en een fictief golfklimaat onderzoek gedaan naar golfbrekers met kubussen, tetrapods en accropods als toplaagelementen. Op basis van minimale totale projektkosten gedurende de geplande levensduur van de constructie, is een vergelijking gemaakt tussen de verschillende varianten. De totale projektkosten zijn opgebouwd uit constructiekosten en schadekosten. De totale projektkosten van de accropodegolfbreker (circa 195 mln. gld.) zijn lager dan die van de kubus en tetrapodegolfbreker (250 mln. respectievelijk 245 mln. gld.). De schadekosten blijven laag ten opzichte van de totale kosten. Op de constructiekosten wordt voordeel geboekt door de accropodegolfbreker, als gevolg van gehalveerde betonkosten. Dit wordt met name veroorzaakt doordat de toplaag enkellaags kan zijn en lichtere elementen kunnen worden toegepast. Het verschil inkosten ontstaat slechts in het diepere gebied als gevolg van ontwerpverschillen in waterdieptes groter dan 7 m. Het tracegedeelte in waterdieptes kleiner dan < 7 m is voor alle golfbrekervarianten als gevoIg van uitvoeringstechnische redenen als een conventionele stortstenen golfbreker ontworpen. Voor dezeIfde fictieve randvoorwaarden is eerder onderzoek gedaan naar andere typen golfbrekers. De volgende varianten zijn hierbij bekeken: de conventionele stortstenen golfbreker (als basisvariant) en de bermgolfbreker door Op den Velde (1993) versus de monoliet golfbrekers door Schols (1997). Door voorgaand onderzoek bij het huidige onderzoek te betrekken kan gekeken hoe de kosten zich verhouden ten opzichte van de conventionele stortstenen golfbreker. De constructiekosten van de accropode en de caissongolfbreker zijn aanzienlijk lager dan die van de conventionele stortstenen golfbreker (195 mln. , 205 mln. en respectieveIijk 480 mln. gld.). Het verschil wordt voornamelijk bepaald door grote overproduktie van de lichte fracties in de steengroeve en de benodigde hoeveelheden stortsteen in het dwarsprofiel van de conventionele stortstenen golfbreker. De accropodegolfbreker en de caissongolfbreker zijn concurrerend met elkaar. Dit overzicht moet worden beschouwd als een voorlopige aanwijzing bij het kiezen van een geschikt lokale omstandigheden goed geanalyseerd worden. Tot de belangrijkste lokale omstandigheden worden gerekend de vorm van de fragmentatiecurve van de steengroeve, de afstand van de steengroeve naar de golfbrekerlokatie, de bodemgesteldheid, het golfklimaat en de eenheidsprijs van het constructiebeton en de stortsteen.+breakwater; costing; armour unit; accropode)uuid:7eb6c93fb4ce4770a8bca38ad7da4a93Dhttp://resolver.tudelft.nl/uuid:7eb6c93fb4ce4770a8bca38ad7da4a93:Problemen binnen het bakkentransport in de natte waterbouwHuijssoon, W.P.dTutuarima, W. (mentor); Horstmeier, T.H.W. (mentor); Dykstra, C.J. (mentor); Vrijling, J.K. (mentor)Onderzoek naar de inzet van materieel voor het transport van stenen over water, ten behoeve van de bouw van een golfbreker. Vanuit de praktijk (Boskalis) is de vraag gekomen om het bakkentransportproces, zoals dat plaatsvindt bij de bouw van offshore golfbrekers, nader te bestuderen. De reden daarvan is, dat de berekende productie met behulp van de huidige berekeningsmethode niet voldoet in de praktijk. De berekende productie en daarmee ook de kosten blijken niet haalbaar te zijn. Het doel van dit onderzoek is het inzicht in het bakkentransportproces te vergroten. Tevens is een bruikbaar hulpmiddel ontwikkeld waarmee tijdens de begrotingsfase de werkelijk haalbare productie en de kosten bij een gegeven materieelinzet nauwkeuriger bepaald kunnen worden. Het bakkentransportproces bestaat hier uit het transporteren van stenen en beton elementen voor de bouw van een offshore golfbreker. Dit transport vindt plaats met platte bakken die verscheept worden met duw en/of sleepboten. De bakken worden geladen aan een kade in een werkhaven (het laadstation). zie schema I. Op de loslocatie worden de bakken gelost (het losstation). Het losstation bestaat uit een kraan op een ponton die de stenen lost en op zijn plaats brengt.*breakwater; construction; logistics; barge)uuid:271b7d9a4c14455296c08027e0bfe226Dhttp://resolver.tudelft.nl/uuid:271b7d9a4c14455296c08027e0bfe226Golfreflectie bij golfbrekersSinke, J.J.Schiereck, G.J. (mentor); Fontijn, H.L. (mentor); Van Gent, M.R.A. (mentor); Van der Meulen, T. (mentor); D' Angremond, K. (mentor)
Een teenconstructie van een golfbreker is het deel van een golfbreker dat zich aan de onderzijde van het golfbrekertalud bevindt. Een teenconstructie geeft steun aan het voortalud van de golfbreker en voorkomt, samen met andere golfbrekeronderdelen, het wegspoelen van constructiemateriaal en ondergrond vanonder een golfbreker. Bij het dimensioneren van de teenconstructie van golfbrekers wordt tot op heden gebruik gemaakt van empirische relaties gebaseerd op modelproeven. Deze methode van dimensioneren heeft verschillende nadelen. De teen zou echter ook gedimensioneerd kunnen worden door de stroomsnelheden over de teen, als gevolg van de golven boven de teen, te relateren aan de steenstabiliteit. Daarmee zou< een meer algemeen geldende dimensionering mogelijk zijn. Voor een dergelijke aanpak moet dan wel de golfhoogte voor de golfbreker bekend zijn. De golfhoogtes boven de teen worden bepaald door de inkomende golf en de op de golfbreker gereflecteerde golf. De reflectie van een golf op een eenvoudige geometrisch talud kan worden berekend met bestaande formules. Voor complexe geometrien moet de reflectie uit experimenteel modelonderzoek of met een numeriek model gevonden worden. Het doel van deze studie is te onderzoeken of reflectiecoefficinten op een eenvoudig talud nauwkeurig met het eendimensionale numeriek model ODIFLOCS voorspeld kunnen worden. De met ODIFLOCS berekende reflectiecoefficinten worden vergeleken met gemeten reflectiecoefficinten uit uitgevoerde experimenten en met bestaande formules. De reflectiecoefficinten zijn vergeleken voor: een verticale ondoorlatende wand, een ondoorlatend glad en een ruw talud met helling 1:3 en 1: 1.5 en een doorlatend talud met helling 1:3 en een negental golfklimaten. Het programma ODIFLOCS is in staat om de juiste trend in de reflectiecoefficinten te berekenen voor ondoorlatende taluds met een helling 1:3 en 1: 1.5. Voor ondoorlatende taluds met een helling 1:3 geeft ODIFLOCS te lage reflectiecoefficinten en voor ondoorlatende taluds met een helling 1: 1.5 geeft ODIFLOCS te hoge reflectiecoefficinten. Er worden maximale verschillen gevonden tussen de met ODIFLOCS berekende reflectiecoefficinten en de met bestaande formules berekende reflectiecoefficinten en gemeten reflectiecoefficinten in de orde van grootte van ? Cr = 0.20. De verschillen nemen voor de ondoorlatende taluds toe met afname van de golfsteilheid, de afname van de verhouding tussen de waterdiepte en de diepwatergolflengte en de afname van de verhouding tussen de waterdiepte en de golfhoogte. ODIFLOCS is niet in staat om een juiste trend in reflectiecoefficinten te berekenen voor een doorlatend talud met helling 1:3. Er worden verschillen gevonden tussen de met ODIFLOCS en de met bestaande formules berekende reflectiecoefficinten in de orde van grootte van ? Cr=0.10. De verschillen nemen toe voor het doorlatende talud met de afname van de golfsteilheid en de toename van de verhouding tussen de waterdiepte en de golfhoogte. Voor een onderzochte complexere geometrie namelijk een strandmuur met een stortstenen berm blijkt dat ODIFLOCS op een juiste manier de trend in de reflectiecoefficinten kan berekenen. Er worden verschillen gevonden tussen de met ODIFLOCS en de met bestaande formules berekende reflectiecoefficinten in de orde van grootte van ? Cr=O.20. Daarom kan geconcludeerd worden dat ODIFLOCS bruikbaar is voor de bepaling van de trend in de reflectiecoefficinten voor golfbrekers, echter de nauwkeurigheid is te laag om steenstabiliteit van teenconstructies te berekenen.&reflection; wave; breakwater; Odiflocs)uuid:bb378ae3d34c4c9499289efacec3ef5eDhttp://resolver.tudelft.nl/uuid:bb378ae3d34c4c9499289efacec3ef5eRTripoli breakwater reconstruction  evaluation and modification 1982 NEDECO designScaminee, P.P.sLigteringen, H. (mentor); Tutuarima, W. (mentor); Booij, N. (mentor); Stive, R. (mentor); D' Angremond, K. (mentor)8This study comprises the design of the reconstruction of the main breakwater of the Tripoli Harbour in Libya. Tripoli harbour is one of the oldest harbours of North Africa situated on the Southern coast of Mediterranean Sea. The harbour as it existed in 1972 was built at the beginning of this century and was protected by two main breakwaters. The original construction of these main breakwaters dates back to the Spaniards. The main breakwater on the North, known as the Spanish Mole, extended some 1900 m East NorthEast. A special feature of the harbour was the existence of a line of reefs north of the main breakwater about 100 m on the sea side, working as natural protection from wave attack. In the sixties, the increasing oilbased economic resources of Libya necessitated an expansion of the port facilities. Sir Bruce White, Wolfe Barry & Partners submitted a design of the breakwa< ter locating the new breakwater some 100 m seaward from the Spanish Mole. The main breakwater was designed to be constructed in two stages; stage 1B, 2190 m long with a backfill (built 19721976, see Figure 2) and stage 2A, 2520 m long without any backfill (built 19741980). Significant wave heights of 4 and 4.5 m were adopted for the design of stages 1B and 2A respectively which were based on certain wave data available up to 1971 and 1975. Already during construction it became evident that the breakwater would not fulfil its design criteria. Two major storms in 1981 with a significant wave height of 9.2 m destroyed large parts of the breakwater. In deepwater sections (over 7m deep) almost all wave walls were broken and a large part of the 19ton tetrapods damaged in the actual situation (see Figure 4). The direct hinterland of the breakwater is left at the mercy of overtopping water and spray. The two main roads on the landfill were completely eroded by overtopping and venting water.Netherlands Engineering Consultants (NEDECO) made a complete redesign of the breakwater in 1982 after the breakwater failure (see Figure 3).Meanwhile, during the last 16 years, extreme storms have further deteriorated the breakwater. Frequent nuisance of overtopping water and spray is no exception.The Harbour Authorities have asked for a complete evaluation and modification of the 1982 NEDECO design, because some criteria and boundary conditions have been changed significantly. In this study the new redesign criteria have been determined and based on these criteria a proposal for reconstruction has been worked out. The complete study of the Tripoli Breakwater reconstruction has been divided into four parts. These are: 1. Preliminary Investigations and Data Collection 2. Update Environmental Conditions 3. Preliminary Design 4. Optimization of the Reconstruction Design The approach used in the different sections is further described below and presented in a diagram."breakwater; damage; reconstruction)uuid:b97dd540b6c94c3291b44030213740a8Dhttp://resolver.tudelft.nl/uuid:b97dd540b6c94c3291b44030213740a87Ontwerp en optimalisatie van golfbrekers voor een havenPals, H.EBooij, N. (mentor); Tutuarima, W.H. (mentor); Vrijling, J.K. (mentor)9port development; India; Hiswa; breakwater; risk analysis)uuid:93521ff31b274f889eac081aef4e0349Dhttp://resolver.tudelft.nl/uuid:93521ff31b274f889eac081aef4e0349)Wave transmission at vertical breakwatersHeijn, K.M.hTutuarima, W. (mentor); Van der Meer, J.W. (mentor); Holthuijsen, L.H. (mentor); Vrijling, J.K. (mentor)Recently, interest in vertical breakwaters has grown. The development of ports from natural small harbours to artificial large harbours facing the outer sea has demanded the construction of breakwaters in rougher seas. The vertical breakwater could play a role of importance in this development. To obtain general guidelines for the design of vertical breakwaters, an European research project has been started, called PROVERBSMast Ill. This study is part of this project. Breakwaters are constructed to provide a calm basin for ships and to protect harbour facilities. For ports open to rough seas, breakwaters play a key role in port operations. One of the endangers of harbour tranquillity is wave transmission. Waves hitting the breakwater transfer part of their energy into the harbour, whether by energy through the breakwater, or by energy transfer over the breakwater if the runup of the waves exceeds the top level of the breakwater. Goda (1969) has proposed relations describing wave transmission at vertical breakwaters, based on regular wave tests. Since then, little research work has been addressed to this subject. This report is an attempt to contribute to the enhancement of the understanding of wave transmission at vertical breakwaters. Data of various caisson breakwater types are discussed and analysed. The sloping top caisson breakwater gives more wave transmission than conventional and horizontally composite breakwaters. For horizontally composite breakwaters, wave transmission is in gen< eral less than for conventional breakwaters. The difference in wave transmission between conventional, parapet and perforated breakwaters is not significantly large. The applicability of the relations derived by Goda (1969) for irregular waves using the significant height, has been verified. These relations can also be used to describe wave transmission for various types of caisson breakwaters by adaptation of the coefficients. A relation between the coefficients and a parameter characterising the type of caisson breakwater could not be found. Wave transmission is due to overtopping and transmission through the structure. An effort is made to describe wave transmission due to overtopping with the percentage of overtopping waves. A relation between wave transmission due to overtopping and the percentage of overtopping waves, which depends on the crest freeboard, has been derived. A relationship for wave transmission through the structure is also given. These relations are based on data of a conventional caisson breakwater, i.e. caisson placed on a rubble mound foundation. The results are discussed and applied to sloping top caisson breakwaters. Finally, wave transmission has been studied in a theoretical approach to get a better insight in the process. The method as described in this report, however, consequently overestimates the wave transmission coefficient, probably due to the nonlinearity of the phenomenon wave transmission./breakwater; caisson; wave impact; vertical wall)uuid:c5a52434067d41f7b531cf4fa19b5d89Dhttp://resolver.tudelft.nl/uuid:c5a52434067d41f7b531cf4fa19b5d89/Economic optimal design of vertical breakwatersVoortman, H.G.D' Angremond, K. (mentor); Vrouwenvelder, A.C.W.M. (mentor); Tutuarima, W.H. (mentor); Van Gelder, P.H.A.J.M. (mentor); Vrijling, J.K. (mentor) In Europe the interest in and the importance of vertical breakwaters is growing. A central point is the optimal geometry, e.g. the width and height of the breakwater caisson chosen such that the total costs over the lifetime of the structure are minimized. Probabilistic design tools provide several methods to determine the probability of failure of a structure. In a design process however, the designer of the structure is faced with the problem of defining the acceptable probability of failure. In general there are three ways to determine the optimal probability of failure: Consider the probability of dying of an individual due to collapse of the structure (individual point of view); Consider the probability of occurrence of a certain number of casualties in case of failure of the structure (societal point of view); Minimize the sum of initial investment and capitalized risk over the lifetime of the structure (economical optimization). In the case of a breakwater without amenities the probability of loss of life due to failure is very small, but the economic losses can be severe. Therefore the application of the economical optimization is suitable. In this study a framework for the optimization of vertical breakwaters is developed. The optimization procedure has been implemented in a numerical model. In this model three failure modes are considered: Sliding of the caisson over the rubble foundation (ultimate limit state); Overturning of the caisson (ultimate limit state); Wave transmission (serviceability limit state). Several calculations have been made with the computer program. The results of the calculations show the following: The capitalized risk has a large influence on the optimal geometry of the structure; In general only one mechanism largely determines the probability of failure of an optimal designed vertical breakwater. This mechanism is in general the one which is most expensive to strengthen the breakwater for. In the situation chosen in this stUdy, this is rotation failure of the caisson. The caisson width is the most expensive design variable; The optimal design is influenced by all random variables used in the design; Wave transmission influences the optimal geometry of a breakwater towards higher and narrower < caissons. In the situation chosen in this study, a caisson height such that no wave transmission occurs seems optimal. The developed model provides a good starting point for the development of more advanced optimization models.0breakwater; vertical wall; economic optimization)uuid:7c445438815a49df891c5fe787c82589Dhttp://resolver.tudelft.nl/uuid:7c445438815a49df891c5fe787c82589AOntwerp van een verplaatsbare caissongolfbreker voor Maasvlakte 2Spanjers, C.M.GTutuarima, W. (mentor); De Gijt, J.G. (mentor); Vrijling, J.K. (mentor)Voorstudie Om de leidende rol die de haven van Rotterdam in de wereldhandel heeft te kunnen handhaven is het noodzakelijk voor de komende decennia ruimte te creeren in de nabijheid van de haven. Dit kan door het aanleggen van een tweede Maasvlakte, een landaanwinning in zee. Het is mogelijk gebleken deze Maasvlakte 2 technisch, morfologisch, milieuhygienisch en ecologisch op een verantwoorde manier in te passen in de huidige situatie. Ben referentieontwerp voor 2000 ha netto haventerrein in zee kost ongeveer 6.6 miIjard gulden. Een groot aantal mogelijkheden is geopperd voor de aanleg van het terrein en de benodigde zeeweringen en golfbrekers. Enkele reele oplossingen daarvan komen in aanmerking voor nadere bestudering. Als uitgangspunt voor het verdere ontwerp is voor de realisering van Maasvlakte 2 gekozen voor een met zand opgespoten terrein, dat wordt beschermd door een zeewering of golfbreker bestaande uit caissons. Door Projectorganisatie Maasvlakte2 is een viertal principevarianten voor de situering van Maasvlakte 2 beschreven, vergeleken en beoordeeld. Het is uit oogpunt van kosten en onbetrouwbaarheid van economische voorspellingen gewenst om Maasvlakte 2 gefaseerd aan te leggen. Daarom is onderzocht in welke van de beschreven varianten caissons, die in eerste instantie worden gebruikt als zeewering of golfbreker, opnieuw kunnen worden gebruikt als zeewering, golfbreker of kademuur bij de aanleg van een volgende fuse. Een caissonzeewering die in een volgende aanlegfase als kademuur wordt gebruikt lijkt in alle principevarianten een interessante optie. Verplaatsing van een caissongolfbreker bij een gefaseerde aanleg van de zogenaamde noordelijke aanlegvariant lijkt financieel aantrekkelijk en praktisch goed toepasbaar. Deze optie wordt in de vervolgstudie nader onderzocht. Enkele uitvoeringsaspecten die van belang zijn bij het verplaatsen van een caisson worden in het slot van deze voorstudie globaal besproken. Een aantal van deze aspecten wordt in het vervolgonderzoek verder uitgewerkt. Tevens worden in dit onderzoek de te verplaatsen caissons ontworpen. Eindrapport Voor de gefaseerde aanleg van de zogenaamde noordelijke aanlegvariant van Maasvlakte 2 is een golfbreker ontworpen, bestaande uit caissons die op een drempel van stortsteen worden geplaatst. De methode voor uitvoering en plaatsing van de caissons is zo gekozen dat de caissons bij de aanleg van een volgende fase eenvoudig kunnen worden verplaatst om er elders een nieuwe golfbreker mee te bouwen. De caissons worden gebouwd op een terrein dat wordt opgespoten langs de kust van Maasvlakte 1. Dit terrein zal later deel uitmaken van Maasvlakte 2. De betonnen bakken worden vanaf dit terrein op pontons gevijzeld en getransporteerd naar plaats van bestemming. Het caisson wordt vervolgens met een kraanschip, dat speciaal is ontworpen voor werkzaamheden in ondiep water, van het ponton getild en op de drempel geplaatst. Door gaten onder in de wanden vult het caisson zich met water. Na plaatsing wordt het caisson vol met zand gepompt en afgesloten met betonnen platen. Bij verplaatsing van de golfbreker worden de dekplaten en het ballastzand verwijderd en worden de caissons met het kraanschip weer op pontons geplaatst. De voordelen die het bouwen met een kraanschip biedt ten opzichte van het bouwen met drijvende caissons die in een dok worden geconstrueerd zijn talrijk: Het graven van een dok en het baggeren van een vaargeul is niet nodig. De tijd die nodig is voor het plaatsen van de caissons is veel korter, omdat de positionering van een caiss< on snel en nauwkeurig is en het transport en de plaatsing minder afhankelijk zijn van de weersomstandigheden. Het verplaatsen van een caisson is eenvoudiger. Een afgezonken caisson moet waterdicht worden afgesloten en worden opgedreven, hetgeen ingewikkelder is dan het optillen van een caisson met een kraanschip. De golfbreker is in eerste fase 7500 meter lang en wordt gebouwd in water met een diepte varierend van NAP 17.5 meter tot NAP 22.2 meter. De stortstenen drempel heeft een aanleghoogte van NAP 16 meter. De drempel is zo laag mogelijk ontworpen omdat blijkt dat over de diepte gezien een meter caisson goedkoper is dan een meter drempel en omdat een hoog caisson de haalbaarheid van de fasering en verplaatsing vergroot (het drempelmateriaal wordt verondersteld niet te worden hergebruikt). Voor het ontwerp van de caissons zijn twee computerprogramma's geschreven. Naast de beschrijving van en de berekening met deze programma's wordt aandacht besteed aan een groot scala van uitvoeringsaspecten die bij het bouwen van een caissongolfbreker aan de orde komen. Het eerste programma heeft als doel het bepalen van de hoogte en breedte van de caissons aan de hand van respectievelijk een golftransmissieberekening en stabiliteitsberekeningen voor verschillende faalmechanismen. De invloed van diverse ontwerpvariabelen op de benodigde hoogte en breedte kan met dit programma worden bepaald. Uit de berekeningen blijkt dat bezwijken van de ondergrond het maatgevende faalmechanisme is. De berekende hoogte van de caissons is 23.7 meter. De bij deze hoogte benodigde breedte is 26.0 meter. Het tweede programma berekent de goedkoopste oplossing voor de afmetingen van de cellen in het caisson, de caissonlengte en de bijbehorende dikte van de voorgespannen betonnen wanden en vloer van het caisson. Hierbij worden de kosten en hoeveelheden van het gewapend beton, de voorspanning, de bekisting, de ballast en de plaatsingskosten van het caisson beschouwd. In deze berekening is een maximaal ledig caissongewicht van 12.000 ton gehanteerd, gelijk aan de maximale hefcapaciteit van het kraanschip. Uit de berekeningen volgt dat de goedkoopste oplossing gerealiseerd wordt met caissons met een lengte van 51 meter. Deze caissons hebben een kostprijs van ruim fl 69.000, per strekkende meter. De kosten voor transport en plaatsing van het caisson bedragen slechts 7% van dit bedrag. Inclusief de kosten voor de drempel, BTW en overige kosten kan de golfbreker in de eerste fase worden gebouwd voor fl Qf.500 per strekkende meter. Een gefaseerde aanleg van Maasvlakte 2 waarbij na 15 jaar 4000 meter golfbreker wordt verplaatst en 2000 meter wordt bijgebouwd blijkt technisch goed haalbaar en levert een besparing op van ruim 130 miljoen gulden ten opzichte van de aanleg van de gehele golfbreker ineens.@breakwater; caisson; removable breakwater; Rotterdam; Maasvlakte)uuid:6e2a8601636b4630ac69796130e24b8aDhttp://resolver.tudelft.nl/uuid:6e2a8601636b4630ac69796130e24b8aiModelling the effects of submerged breakwaters in a wave basin: 2DH simulations of tests with Delft2DMOR
Schaap, J.D'Angremond, K. (mentor); Booij, N. (mentor); van de Graaf, J. (mentor); Roelvink, J.A. (mentor); van der Biezen, S.C. (mentor)This report is the result of a master thesis ofthe author, student at Delft University ofTechnology, Faculty of Civil Engineering. In this report a simulation oftests with submerged breakwaters, parallel to the shoreline, in a wave basin, are carried out with the morphodynamic model Delft2DMOR. This 2dimensional horizontal model was developed by DELFT HYDRAULICS. The aim of this thesis is to find out whether and how this model is able to simulate these tests with submerged breakwaters, and to investigate the effects of these breakwaters on profile development. The conditions ofthe experiments are used as input for the model. One simulation without breakwaters and two simulations with different breakwater configurations are carried out. Comparison of model results with measurement data rom the experiments shows that the model is able to simulate some hydrodynam< ic and morphological processes induced by the submerged breakwaters. Wave heights in the vicinity ofthe obstacles are reduced because of wave dissipation over the breakwaters. Flow circulation patterns occur induced by water level gradients. Sediment is mainly transported from behind the breakwaters towards and through the gaps seaward. However, there are still quite some differences between model and experimental results. Large amounts of sediment are eroded near the shoreline and close behind the breakwaters, which was not measured during the experiments. Apparently inaccuracies in modelling appear at the boundary of sea and land (original dry points remain dry, bottom gradients are irrealistic large), and at the location of submerged breakwaters where the modelling ofwave behaviour is not adequate. Also problems with resolution of computational grid arise at the location of submerged breakwaters. A higher resolution is needed in order to compute realistic flow velocities close behind the submerged breakwaters. Obviously a lot ofwork has to be done to improve the 2DH model results such that it can be a useful tooI for modelling the effects of submerged breakwaters on a beach profile..breakwater; offshore reef; delft3d; wave basin)uuid:769e8a8b79b24c9daf45acf501a62d61Dhttp://resolver.tudelft.nl/uuid:769e8a8b79b24c9daf45acf501a62d61_The application of spectral analysis in the determination of wave loads on vertical breakwaters
Verweij, A.P.NVan der Meer, J.W. (mentor); Tutuarima, W.H. (mentor); Vrijling, J.K. (mentor)Vertical breakwaters are used in the design of harbours to create a protective area. This protective area can be an approach channel or the harbour itself. Because of large new projects, such as Maasvlakte 11 in the Netherlands and the increasing sizes of ships, many harbours have to be placed in deep water. Deep water requires higher breakwaters. For many years, in Europe the only breakwaters built were rubble mound breakwaters. They consists of rock material and have a more or less trapezoidal shape. With increasing depth this type of breakwaters becomes expensive and the vertical breakwaters seem to be the better alternative. To create new and better design tools for vertical breakwaters a research program has been initiated with financial support of the European Union. European research institutes and universities are doing extensive research in this program. This report presents the results of the research of an alternative method to determine horizontal wave forces on a vertical breakwater. Due to the horizontal wave forces many failure mechanisms, such as sliding and overturning, can occur. The alternative method, presented in this report, calculates with a given wave spectrum the wave force spectrum. A wave spectrum describes a wave field, by giving for a range of frequencies the contribution of each frequency (actually a regular wave with that frequency) to the total energy of the wave field. The waves that are subject of this study are longcrested, nonbreaking waves, that approach the breakwater at a right angle. The wave spectrum is transferred into the wave force spectrum by multiplication with the so called transfer function. For this calculation it is assumed that there exists a linear relation between the incoming waves and the wave forces on the breakwater. This, however, is not entirely true. The transfer function is determined by calculating for a large number of regular waves with various periods the wave forces on the breakwater. The choice of the height for the regular waves poses difficulties which have been given extensive research. The pressure diagram on the front wall of the vertical breakwater at a wave crest can be divided into two parts: one part from the wave crest to mean water level and one part from mean water level to the bottom or, often, the top of the berm. From the latter part a linear behaviour can be recognised, however, the former part introduces a nonlinearity. There remains a dependency on the size of the height for the regular waves. Therefore in the determination < of the transfer function this wave height cannot be chosen arbitrarily. It can be stated that for a low wave height water depth ratio the nonlinearity is small and the transfer function can be used easily, however for a large ratio the influence of the size of the chosen wave height cannot be neglected. Therefore two ways of calculating the transfer function are introduced in this study. One is a constant height for all regular waves in the determination of the transfer function. The other way takes the wave steepness constant over the frequency range. Some features of the latter way are that for low frequencies the values for the transfer function become unrealistically high and that for higher frequencies the influence of the nonlinearity decreases. To study the transfer function and its application many comparisons have been made with results of model tests and with the General Wave Spectrum Model (GWSM). The model test are tests performed in the design of the Eastern Scheldt Storm Surge Barrier and model tests with caissons, both performed at Delft Hydraulics. The General Wave Spectrum Model enables the generation of a wave spectrum by chosing parameters (e.g. for energy, peak frequency and left and right flank). The generated wave spectrum allows to make calculations with different types of wave spectra. The model tests with caissons cannot give conclusive results to confirm the method of the transfer function. The tests give results for the transfer function that match the theoretical transfer function. The course of the measured transfer function seems to be best described by the transfer function with constant wave steepness. However the choice of which constant wave height or which wave steepness to use remains very difficult. The comparison with the model tests performed in the design of the Eastern Scheldt Storm Surge Barrier show that, also, the transfer function calculated with the constant wave steepness follows the course of the model test results better in a large frequency range. The values of the test results and the theoretical results deviate a lot, but that is probably due to the schematisation made for the theoretical results. Another comparison is made with the use of the GWSM. Beside the influence of the nonlinearity of the transfer functions the influence of the shape of the spectrum is studied. The reason for this is the fact that other methods of determining the wave force neglect the influence of the shape of the wave spectrum, which appears to be not correct. Calculations with doublepeaked wave spectra and wave spectra with varying steepness of the right flank prove the influence on the wave force. A method, that is widely used to determine the wave forces on vertical breakwaters, is the method of Goda. It is a method that includes both breaking and nonbreaking waves. The calculation of the wave force is made by using a representative wave height and period. Various comparisons have been made between the method of the transfer function and Goda's method. The method of the transfer function takes the influence of the shape of the wave spectrum into account, opposite to the method of Goda. From comparative calculations with the method of Goda it shows that the influence of the shape of the wave spectrum is of importance. When more energy of a wave spectrum can be found at higher frequencies, because of a second, high frequency, peak or because of a less steep right flank, Goda gives relative high wave forces./breakwater; vertical wall; caisson; wave forces)uuid:3334d1ad3e9e4c629bf342a8baa775daDhttp://resolver.tudelft.nl/uuid:3334d1ad3e9e4c629bf342a8baa775da$Wave impacts on vertical breakwatersVink, H.A.T.fBarends, F.B.J. (mentor); Dieterman, H.A. (mentor); D' Angremond, K. (mentor); Vrijling, J.K. (mentor)The need for coastal structures, such as breakwaters, at great water depths is rapidly increasing as a result ofthe increasing draught of large vessels and offshore land reclamations which can, for instance, be used for the benefit of the expansion of harbours and related industrial activi< ties. In water depths greater than approximately 10 m vertical breakwaters may be the best alternative compared to ordinary rubble mound breakwaters, in terms of performance, total costs, environmental aspects, construction time and maintenance. However, these breakwaters with plane vertical front walls can be exposed to enormous hydraulic loads, such as wave impacts. Wave impacts are dynamical hydraulic loads with, for instance, a very short duration (in the order of magnitude of ms) and a very high peak force which can exceed the quasistatic wave load on a vertical breakwater more than 10 times. As it is described in chapter 1 "Introduction", this report contains the reflection of a research which has been performed on the effect of wave impact loads on the stability of vertical breakwaters. This Master's thesis is divided into three parts: A  Wave impact loads on vertical breakwaters In chapter 2 "Hydraulic loads on vertical breakwaters" different types of quasistatic and wave impact loads are described. Three types of wave impact loads can be distinguished depending on the amount of trapped air between the breaking wave and the plane vertical front wall of a breakwater. In chapter 3 "Wave impact pressures", chapter 4 "Wave impactforces and momentum" and chapter 5 "Special attention to wave impacts with a trapped air pocket" different formulae are presented which can be used to calculate the characteristics of wave impact loads on vertical breakwaters. In chapter 6 "Vertical breakwater design formula and wave impacts" short attention is being paid to the calculation of wave (impact) loads according to the most widely used prediction method for wave (impact) pressures on vertical breakwaters. B  Derivation of models which describe the dynamical behaviour of a vertical breakwater In chapter 7 "Derivation of an analytical massspring model of a vertical breakwater", in chapter 8 "Derivation ofa massspringdashpot TILLY model ofthe vertical breakwater" and in chapter 9 "Analysis ofthe structure andfoundation parameters ofthe vertical breakwater" models which can be used to describe the dynamical behaviour and stability of a vertical breakwater which is exposed to wave impacts are treated. A lot of attention is being paid to the influence of the magnitude of the different dynamical properties (mass, stiffuess and damping) of such a model. C  Analysis of different types of wave impact loads on a vertical breakwater and conclusions The "Analysis ofdifferent types ofwave impact loads on a vertical breakwater" is reflected in chapter 10. "Conclusions and recommendations" can be found in chapter 11. It can be concluded that the stability of a vertical breakwater against wave impacts entirely depends on the type ofwave impact load which is to be expected (i.e. rise time, total duration, magnitude of the peak force, the amount of trapped air) and the dynamical properties of the vertical breakwater and its foundation soil (mass, stiffuess and damping). The maximum peak force of a wave impact does not necessarily induce the maximum dynamical response of a vertical breakwater. Wave impacts with relatively low peak forces and long total durations (relative to the eigenperiod(s) of a vertical breakwater, double peaked wave impact forces and wave impacts followed by low frequency force oscillations due to large trapped air pockets seem to be more dangerous for the stability of a vertical breakwater. The amount of momentum is one of the governing properties of a wave impact load concerning the response and stability of a vertical breakwater. The suggestion commonly found in the literature that wave impacts are totally not significant and should not be used for the design of vertical breakwaters could not be confirmed. A dynamical analysis of the behaviour of a vertical breakwater by means of a mass(elastoplastic) springdashpot computer model should become a necessary part ofthe design process of vertical breakwaters which are exposed to breaking wave loads. The characteristics ofthe wave impact loads to be expected and the foundation characte< ristics should be obtained form large scale hydraulic model tests and site investigations./breakwater; caisson; vertical wall; wave forces)uuid:228b5808c09845fcbd598c87c639e55fDhttp://resolver.tudelft.nl/uuid:228b5808c09845fcbd598c87c639e55f:Beschouwing van constructiekosten van monoliet golfbrekersSchols, N.N.E.In deze studie zijn voor een fictieve golfbreker layout in relatief ondiep water de totale projectkosten tijdens de geplande levensduur van een conventionele stortstenen golfbreker, een caissongolfbreker en een samengestelde golfbreker vergeleken. De totale golfbrekerlengte van deze layout is circa 4000 m en strekt zich uit tot in een waterdiepte van 15 m. Hiervan ligt 1400 m in waterdieptes kleiner dan 7m. Om te voorkomen dat de de constructie bezwijkt, als gevolg van het frequent breken van golven tegen de monoliet elementen, zijn alle ontwerpen in dit relatief ondiepe gedeelte uitgevoerd als conventionele stortstenen golfbrekers. Verschillen in constructiekosten tussen de alternatieven zijn dus volledig het gevolg van het golfbrekerdeel in waterdieptes van 715 m (Iengte 2600 m). De gehanteerde eenheidsprijzen voor het materiaal zijn indicatief voor het prijsniveau op de Nederlandse markt. Bij het ramen van de transportkosten van de stortsteen is uitgegaan van landtransport over 75 km, dan wel transport over water over 375 km. Het gehanteerde golfklimaat is ongeveer vergelijkbaar met dat op de Noordzee. In het onderzoek zijn geen grondmechanische berekeningen gemaakt om de stabiliteit van het ontwerp te controleren. Kosten voor eventueel noodzakelijke grondverbeteringen zijn in de kostenraming niet meegenomen. De raming van de constructiekosten van de caissongolfbreker (circa 1205 miljoen) is voor gegeven golfbreker layout lager dan de raming van de samengestelde golfbreker (circa 1215 miljoen) en aanmerkelijk lager dan de conventionele stortstenen golfbreker (circa 1550 miljoen). Bovendien is de bijbehorende jaarlijkse kans op bezwijken van beide types monoliet golfbreker kleiner. De beide typen monoliet golfbreker zijn gedimensioneerd op een ontwerpgolfhoogte, die begrensd wordt door de lokale waterdiepte. Dit leidt tot de laagste totale projectkosten voor de geplande levensduur van de constructie. De kosten voor de sleepbootinzet zijn slechts een gering percentage van de totale constructiekosten van monoliet golfbrekers (circa 3%), daarom spelen eventuele verschillen in uitvoeringsmethoden geen doorslaggevende rol bij de keuze tussen een caissongolfbreker en een samengestelde golfbreker. Daamaast is in een apart deelonderzoek geconcludeerd dat in waterdieptes groter dan 20 m een samengestelde golfbreker lagere materiaalkosten heeft dan een caissongolfbreker. De drempelhoogte dient in het samengestelde ontwerp zo gekozen te worden, dat de afstand van de bodem van het monoliet element tot de gemiddelde waterspiegel circa 18.0 m bedraagt. Voor deze configuratie van het monoliet element vallen de bezwijkmechanismen afschuiven en overschrijden van de maximale korrelspanning onder het kantelpunt samen, en heeft constructie de laagste materiaalkosten. Door de conclusies (van beide deelonderzoeken) te combineren, is een indicatief overzicht afgeleid, waaruit per waterdiepte volgt welk type golfbreker de laagste constructiekosten heeft. Dit overzicht moet worden beschouwd als een voorlopige aanwijzing bij het kiezen van een geschikt type golfbreker. Voordat een definitieve keuze voor een type golfbreker wordt gemaakt, moeten lokale omstandigheden goed geanalyseerd worden. De belangrijkste lokale omstandigheden zijn de vorm van de fragmentatie curve van steengroeve, de eenheidsprijs van constructiebeton, transportkosten voor stortsteen en bodemgesteldheid. De conclusie dat vanaf waterdieptes groter dan 7.0 m een caissongolfbreker goedkoper is dan een conventionele stortstenen golfbreker zal er niet toe leiden, dat alle in de nabije toekomst te construeren golfbrekers in deze waterdieptes uit monoliet elementen worden opgebouwd. De reden hiervoor is dat nog niet alle bezwijkmechanismen van monoliet golfbreker vol< ledig worden doorgrond.'breakwater; caisson; construction costs)uuid:b82fdac3b65349be963b60690b746864Dhttp://resolver.tudelft.nl/uuid:b82fdac3b65349be963b60690b746864Wave Energy Conversion: Theory of wave energy conversion; Wave energy converters, the state of the art; Design of a wave power converting breakwater for the Port of Bilbao, North SpainVervoorn, H.SVan Duivendijk, J. (mentor); Van der Meulen, T. (mentor); D' Angremond, K. (mentor)y
Since the awareness that the conventional energy sources will run short, the use of various renewable energy sources has been investigated, these are solar, wind, ocean and geothennal energy. Quite some countries are interested in wave energy conversion. In several countries some fullscale wave energy converting pilot plants have been tested. Some of these are still operating. Several types of wave energy converting devices exist. There are some methods to classify these converters. According to their size and orientation three types can be distinguished: (I) point absorbers, devices which are small compared to a typical wave length, (2) tenninators, wide structures perpendicular to the incident waves and (3) attenuators, long structures parallel to the wave propagation. It is expected that in future, a number of point absorbers, installed some kilometres offshore will be used as large wave power plants. The advantage of these point absorbers is that they can capture wave energy from a larger width than the width of the structure. At present, an useful power plant is the in Norway developed tapered channel, TAPCHAN. The waves are converted by a rising channel into potential energy and subsequently by a turbine into electricity. Also the combination of a breakwater with wave energy conversion converting devices is expected to have good prospects. This study deals with the design of wave power converting breakwaters. Three types of wave energy converting devices have been investigated for the combination with a breakwater. Potential energy converting devices, flap type devices and oscillating water column devices. Oscillating water column devices have a good perfonnance, while they are able to convert large wave power values and they are not sensitive to damage. It is concluded that these devices are most suitable for combination with a breakwater. Two types of oscillating water column (= OWC) devices can be discerned: (1) devices with a single air chamber above a column and consequently one particular resonance frequency or (2) devices with in front of the chamber a 'harbour' such that the devices become multiresonant. In Japan, Sakata Port, a wave power converting caisson with only an air chamber has been constructed. The British inventors expect that a breakwater with 'harbour' type devices has the best prospects. These devices are placed at intervals in the breakwater and operate as point absorbers. In this study the 'harbour' type devices have been investigated. Several theories (mainly numerical methods) exist to model the hydrodynamic characteristics of 'harbour' type devices. Most theories show roughly the same results. Comparison of the results of the different theories and several designs of 'harbour' type devices has been made possible by dimensionless presentation of design parameters. In that way, general applicable design rules have been derived. With these rules, the dimensions of a 'harbour' type device can be detennined without the help of complicated numerical methods. With the derived design rules, a wave power converting breakwater has been designed for the Port of Bilbao, North Spain. Two design conditions are investigated, namely (1) the ultimate limit state (U.L.S.) required for the stability and strength of the breakwater and (2) the serviceability limit state (S.L.S.), for functioning of the breakwater for sheltering Bilbao Harbour and for wave power conversion.9wave energy; energy conversion; Bilbao; Spain; breakwater)uuid:e091d54bbffa44ba8d5d850cdc03731aDhttp://resolver.tudelft.nl/uuid:e091d54bbffa44ba8d5d850cdc03731ayWave transmissions at lowcres< ted structures. Stability of tetrapods at front, crest and rear of a lowcrested breakwater
de Jong, R.J.dd'Angremond, K. (mentor); Tutuarima, W.H. (mentor); van der Meer, J. (mentor); Visser, P.J. (mentor)This report is the result of the Master thesis of the author, at Delft University of Technology, Faculty of Civil Engineering. The study was performed at DELFT HYDRAULICS, in cooperation with Boskalis Westminster Dredging BV. Despite the many studies and experiments that have already been performed on the subject of lowcrested breakwaters, one has still not yet been able to completely comprehend wave transmission and damage inflicted on breakwaters. The knowledge of the processes occurring at lowcrested breakwaters is still limited. Moreover only a small number of experiments is available. This twopart report is an attempt to contribute to the enhancement of the understanding of the wave transmission at lowcrested structures and the stability of lowcrested breakwaters with an armour layer of Tetrapods. Part A of this report deals with the derivation of new transmission formulae, Part B deals with stability of Tetrapods at the three segments, Front, Crest and Rear of a lowcrested breakwater.breakwater; tetrapod)uuid:c33fa96f6afa42cab8a3e6da89e722feDhttp://resolver.tudelft.nl/uuid:c33fa96f6afa42cab8a3e6da89e722fe[Effect of submerged breakwaters on a beach profile exposed to regular waves in a wave basinDe Later, J.iD'Angremond, K. (mentor); van de Graaff, J. (mentor); Fontijn, H.L. (mentor); van der Biezen, S. (mentor)In the framework of a Human Capital and Mobility Project called "Dynamics of Beaches, experiments with the aim of solving unknown aspects of submerged breakwaters have been carried out by six European universities. Agreements were made considering the layout of the breakwater, the wave conditions and the initial bottom profile. This report discusses the effects of a discontinuous breakwater on a profile exposed to regular waves. For this aim, nine experiments with and without a scale model of a breakwater and with a movable bed were carried out in the wave basin of the Laboratory ofFluid Mechanics at DUT. Measurements were carried out with a profile follower, wave probes and fluid velocity meters. By varying the wave heights and the application of two breakwater configurations the results of these measurements contribute (qualitatively) to a better understanding of submerged breakwaters. In this report the following topics are discussed: (1)profile development, (2)sediment distribution over the basin, (3)wave height development, (4)velocity distributions, (5)comparison with results of earlier carried out 2DV experiments. The most striking effect of the submerged breakwater is that, for the applied breakwater and gap lengths, a strong return flow through the gaps between the breakwaters is generated, apparently compensating for the mass flux over the breakwater crests. Compared to the experiments without breakwater, this resulted in relatively large sediment transports seaward through the gap. The sediment distributions showed that sediment was transported from behind the breakwaters towards the gaps between them and further, onto the sea. This is in accordance with the results of the velocity measurements, because the velocity distributions showed strong longshore currents landward ofthe breakwaters. The driving force of these longshore currents, the incoming waves, show a different development depending on the presence of a breakwater in the crosssection. The breakwater results in a reduced wave height landward ofthe breakwater. Compared to the results of comparable 2DV experiments the most striking difference is the offshore sediment transport.%breakwater; offshore reef; wave basin)uuid:dfc9584c26964458a0f4d96cd5578f3fDhttp://resolver.tudelft.nl/uuid:dfc9584c26964458a0f4d96cd5578f3f~A probablistic approach of the hydraulic and structural damage of the DolosLayer from the southern breakwater in Richards BayVan Epen, D.; Nieuwenhuijs, J.aBijker, E.W. (mentor); d' Angremond, K. (mentor);< Ligteringen, H. (mentor); Meermans, W. (mentor)K From the ten breakwaters we selected, on the amount of reliable information available, one breakwater in Richards Bay, South Africa. The preliminary check, made in the first phase, showed the design of this breakwater was rather conservative. From surveys done on the breakwater although, it appeared that the armorlayer was damaged in storms with a significant wave height below the design wave height. In the chapters 1 and 3 a description is given of the breakwater in Richards Bay. The traditional design process of armor units on a breakwater consists of the dimensioning of the units with the Hudsonformula together with model tests. The Hudson formula is described in chapter 2, this formula has several shortcomings such as: no influence of wave period, spectrum shape and permeability of the structure. Therefore model tests are required to complete the design. This traditional approach in the design process, based on creating a sufficient margin between the load and resistance, takes no notice of uncertainties in the results of wave climate, model testing and construction. Probability methods can be used to account for the distribution of the parameters in the designformula. The theoretical background of these probabilistic methods is described in chapter 4. Chapter 5 includes a calculation of the probability of exceedance of a certain damage level to the armor layer. This calculation is done on level II, with data provided by the breakwater in Richards Bay. The parameters giving the highest contribution to the probability of exceedance in this calculation are the significant wave height and the damage coefficient. Although the calculation has several shortcomings, it shows how this method can be used in the design process. With traditional methods as well as with probabilistic methods, errors may occur when a relevant failure mode is not taken into account. Chapter 6 observes the consequences of not considering breakage in the design process of the armor units used on Richards Bay's breakwater. Although there is little knowledge on the relation between wave action on the breakwater and breakage of armor units, in chapter 8 arelation will be derived from prototype data. Together with this relation a method will be derived to calculate the probability of failure of the breakwater concerning breakage and hydraulic failure. ( chapter 9 )Sbreakwater; Richards Bay; wave height; probalistic approach; probability of failure)uuid:dbda05e75a4b43888844da757505f75aDhttp://resolver.tudelft.nl/uuid:dbda05e75a4b43888844da757505f75a?Some aspects of near shore processes near Visakhapatnam HarbourChittibabu, P.?Bijker, E.W. (mentor); Bakker, W.T. (mentor); Booy, N. (mentor)FVisakhapatnam is one of the major ports along the east coast of India. An outer harbar in 1976 is constructed to accomadate large ships and to meet the requirements of the ever growing industries of Visakhapatnam. For the maintainance of the Visakhapatnam outer harbour(VOH) two breakwaters are constructed at the south and east end of the harbar. Littoral barriers such as breakwaters and harbar protection works effect the general equilibrium of the beach along the coast. Visakhapatnam is not exceptional. There is a general trend of erosion to the downdrift i.e northern side of the VOH irrespective of dredging and pumping of sand by VPT there is accretion to the south of the VOH. Coastal processes of Visakhapatnam are also influenced by the rockey outcrops existing near Lions club park, Redlight house, Waltair point and Kailasa range. The stretch of the coastline is mainly influenced by waves of mansaan winds and associated liitoral drift ,harbar protection works rockey outcrops, dredging and pumping of sand from the snd trap located on the leeside of the south breakwater by VPT.0Visakhapatnam; India; Ports; breakwater; erosion)uuid:02048d144eff4b53ad650e6db945ca95Dhttp://resolver.tudelft.nl/uuid:02048d144eff4b53ad650e6db945ca959Landreclamation at the coastal area of Kuantan (Malaysia)
Burgers, S.H.Bijker, E.<W. (mentor)Kuantan, a city on the east coast of Peninsular Malaysia, faces two main problems. First, the fishing port of Kuantan, in the mouth of the river Sungai Kuantan, has the difficulty of a shallow port entrance. Secondly, the city Kuantan wants to stimulate tourism, for example by building a recreation park at the coastal area. This report investigates whether it will be possible to construct a breakwater serving these two problems. The future breakwater on the north side of the approach channel to the harbour must on one hand create possibilities for land reclamation between this breakwater and the original coastline. On the other hand the breakwater has to improve the accessibility f the approach channel. The reclaimed land can possibly serve as the area for a future recreation park. The improved approach channel has to keep Kuantan one of the main fishing ports on the east coast of Peninsular Malaysia.5Kuantan; breakwater; reclamation; ports; fishing port
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