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Calibri 83ffff̙̙3f3fff3f3f33333f33333.oTU Delft Repositoryg Uuuidrepository linktitleauthorcontributorpublication yearabstract
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departmentresearch group programmeprojectcoordinates)uuid:adc422cd2dfc4f18b288c7be4a5bcbf5Dhttp://resolver.tudelft.nl/uuid:adc422cd2dfc4f18b288c7be4a5bcbf5VPotential of Partially Superconducting Generators for Large DirectDrive Wind TurbinesLiu, D. (TU Delft DC systems, Energy conversion & Storage); Polinder, H. (TU Delft DC systems, Energy conversion & Storage); Abrahamsen, Asger Bech (Denmark Technical University); Ferreira, J.A. (TU Delft ESE Programmes)cThis paper aims at assessing the potential of partially superconducting generators for 10 MW directdrive wind turbines by investigating their performance for a very wide range of excitation currents. Performance indicators such as shear stress and efficiency and other generator characteristics are compared for 12 different generator topologies. To be sufficiently attractive, superconducting generators must have significant advantages over permanent magnet directdrive generators, which typically have shear stresses of the order of 53 kPa and efficiencies of 96%. Therefore, we investigate what excitation is required to obtain a doubled shear stress and an efficiency of 98%. To achieve this, the different topologies require a range of excitation from 200 to 550 kAt (ampereturns) with a low armature current density of 2 A/mm2. The more iron that is used in the core of these topologies, the easier they achieve this performance. By examining the maximum magnetic flux density at the location of the superconducting field winding, feasible superconductors can be chosen according to their engineering current density capabilities. It is found that high and lowtemperature superconductors can meet the performance criteria for many of the topologies. MgB2 superconductors are feasible for the fully ironcored topology with salient poles but need cooling down to 10 K.YDirect drive; high temperature superconductor (HTS); low temperature superconductor (LTS)enjournal articleAccepted Author Manuscript'DC systems, Energy conversion & Storage)uuid:e147390075ba402f9f1919ddd7dc2b82Dhttp://resolver.tudelft.nl/uuid:e147390075ba402f9f1919ddd7dc2b82QShort Circuits of a 10 MW High Temperature Superconducting Wind Turbine Generator;Song, X. (Denmark Technical University); Liu, D. (TU Delft DC systems, Energy conversion & Storage); Polinder, H. (TU Delft DC systems, Energy conversion & Storage); Mijatovic, Nenad (Denmark Technical University); Holbll, Joachim (Denmark Technical University); Jensen, Bogi Bech (University of the Faroe Islands)Direct drive high temperature superconducting (HTS) wind turbine generators have been proposed to tackle challenges for ever increasing wind turbine ratings. Due to smaller reactances in HTS generators, higher fault currents and larger transient torques could occur if sudden short circuits happen at generator terminals. In this paper, a finite element model that couples magnetic fields and the generator s equivalent circuits is developed to simulate short circuit faults. Afterwards, the model is used to study the transient performance of a 10 MW HTS wind turbine generator under four different short circuits, i.e., threephase, phasephase clear of earth, phasephaseearth, and phaseearth. The stator current, fault torque, and field current under each short circuit scenario are examined. Also included are the forces experienced by the HTS field winding under short circuits. The results show that the short circuits pose great challenges to the generator, and careful consideration should be given to protect the generator. The findings presented in this paper would be beneficial to the design, operation and protection of an HTS wind turbine generator.dFinite element analysis; force; high temperature superconducting generator; short circuit; transient)uuid:40e6a41f757e4960be477d4bdb179804Dhttp://resolver.tudelft.< nl/uuid:40e6a41f757e4960be477d4bdb179804KComparison of NestedLoop Rotors in Brushless DoublyFed Induction MachinesWang, X. (TU Delft DC systems, Energy conversion & Storage); Liu, D. (TU Delft DC systems, Energy conversion & Storage); Lahaye, D.J.P. (TU Delft Numerical Analysis); Polinder, H. (TU Delft DC systems, Energy conversion & Storage); Ferreira, J.A. (TU Delft Electrical Power Processing)The brushless doublyfed induction machine (DFIM) has great potential as a variablespeed generator for wind turbine applications. This special machine has a richer spaceharmonic spectrum due to its special nestedloop rotor construction compared with conventional induction machines. It may result in higher iron losses, higher torque ripple and more timeharmonics adding to the grid total harmonic distortion (THD). This paper applies the 2D finite element (FE) model to investigate several different nested loop rotor constructions. It shows the outer loop makes more contribution to the torque while the inner loop plays a small role in the torque production. The most outer loop determines the overall THD level while the inner one has little influence on it. The THD could be reduced by increasing the number of the outer loops. More machine performances could be studied to derive more guidelines for designing the<br/>middle loops.\permanent magnet machine; Concentrated winding; eddy current losses; experimental validationconference paperIEEE9781467388634)uuid:c9c93b5e64aa4889b5b3ebe012e2b8f1Dhttp://resolver.tudelft.nl/uuid:c9c93b5e64aa4889b5b3ebe012e2b8f1Comparison of Levelized Cost of Energy of a 10 MW superconducting and magnetic pseudo direct drive generator targeted for the INNWIND.EU reference turbineAbrahamsen, Asger Bech (Technical University of Denmark); Liu, D. (TU Delft DC systems, Energy conversion & Storage); Magnusson, Niklas (SINTEF); Thomas, A (Siemens Wind Power); Azar, Ziad (Siemens Wind Power); Stehouwer, Ewoud (DNVGL); Hendriks, E (Knowledge Centre WMC); Penzkofer, A. (University of Sheffield); Atallah, K (University of Sheffield); Dragan, R.R. (Magnomatics); .Clark, R.E. (Magnomatics); Deng, F. (Aalborg University); Chen, Z (Aalborg University); Karwatzki, D. (Leibniz Universitt); Mertens, A. (Leibniz Universitt); Parker, Max (University of Strathclyde); Finney, Stephen J. (University of Strathclyde); Polinder, H.Innovative drive trains targeted at 1020 MW offshore turbines are investigated in the INNWIND.EU project in order to determine the impact on the Levelized Cost of Energy (LCoE) resulting when installed in the ,North sea at 50 m of water [1]. The two main technologies studied are superconducting direct drive (SCDD)[2] and the magnetic pseudo direct drive (PDD) [3] generators, which are both capable to providing compact drive trains with low weight and a small number of moving parts compared to a gearbox based drive train (see figure 1a). Superconducting field coils are used to provide the torque in the direct drive generators, where the armature windings are based on conventional copper wire and magnetic steel laminates operated at ambient temperature. Magnetic pseudo direct drive generators consist of a magnetic gearbox made of an inner free rotor (rotating at a geared up speed to the blade input) and an intermediate drive rotor inserted into an outer static armature winding, where the electricity is harvested.)uuid:624e0a6f854f463bbe4c62af81f363adDhttp://resolver.tudelft.nl/uuid:624e0a6f854f463bbe4c62af81f363adFinite Element Analysis and Experimental Validation of Eddy Current Losses in Permanent Magnet Machines with FractionalSlot Concentrated WindingsgPermanentmagnet machines with fractional slot concentrated windings are easy to manufacture. Their popularity therefore is steadily increasing. Without a proper design, however, the induced eddycurrent losses in the solid rotor get rather high. The modeling and the prediction of eddycurrent losses for these machines are thus very important during the design process. This paper focuses on the finiteelement analysis and< the experimental validation of eddycurrent losses for this kind of machine with a small axial length. Twodimensional and threedimensional transient finiteelement models are developed for computing the eddycurrent losses. The rotor motion is taken into account using an Arbitrary LagrangianEulerian formulation. The total iron losses are measured experimentally and a method to separate the rotor iron losses from the total iron losses is presented. The validation results show that the twodimensional finiteelement model overestimates the losses due to the endeffects being neglected. The threedimensional model agrees much better with the measurements in both noload and onload operations.\Concentrated winding; eddy current losses; experimental validation; permanent magnet machine)uuid:98088329676a4ba0b76e4dfb48e4eb4eDhttp://resolver.tudelft.nl/uuid:98088329676a4ba0b76e4dfb48e4eb4eDSong, X. (Technical University of Denmark); Polinder, H. (TU Delft DC systems, Energy conversion & Storage); Liu, D. (TU Delft DC systems, Energy conversion & Storage); Mijatovic, Nenad (Technical University of Denmark); Holbll, Joachim (Technical University of Denmark); Jensen, Bogi Bech (University of the Faroe Islands)Direct drive high temperature superconducting (HTS) wind turbine generators have been proposed to tackle challenges for ever increasing wind turbine ratings. Due to smaller reactances in HTS generators, higher fault currents and larger transient torques could occur if sudden short circuits happen at generator terminals. In this paper, a finite element model that couples magnetic fields and the generator s equivalent circuits is developed to simulate short circuit faults. Afterwards, the model is used to study the transient performance of a 10 MW HTS wind turbine generator under four different short circuits, i.e., threephase, phasephase clear of earth, phasephaseearth, and phaseearth. The stator current, fault torque, and field current under each short circuit scenario are examined. Also included are the forces experienced by the field winding under short circuits. The results show that the short circuits pose great challenges to the generator, and careful consideration should be given to protect the generator. The results presented in this paper would be beneficial to the design, operation and protection of an HTS wind turbine generator.dFinite element analysis; Force; High temperature superconducting generator; Short circuit; Transient)uuid:01387120a39a477faceae5b902b018faDhttp://resolver.tudelft.nl/uuid:01387120a39a477faceae5b902b018faODesign study of a 10 MW MgB2 superconductor direct drive wind turbine generatorSAbrahamsen, A.B.; Magnusson, N.; Liu, D.; Stehouwer, E.; Hendriks, B.; Polinder, H..A superconducting direct drive generator based on field windings of MgB2 superconducting tape is proposed as a solution by mounting the generator in front of the blades using a kingpin nacelle design for offshore turbines with power ratings larger than 10 MW as investigated in the INNWIND.EU project.]superconducting generator; direct drive generator; offshore wind turbine; nacelle integrationEWEA8Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Computer ScienceElectrical Sustainable Energy)uuid:fabc0cb6e8684bf484c2f45cfc7d6642Dhttp://resolver.tudelft.nl/uuid:fabc0cb6e8684bf484c2f45cfc7d6642IDesign of an MgB2 race track coil for a wind generator pole demonstrationDAbrahamsen, A.B.; Magnusson, N.; Jensen, B.B.; Liu, D.; Polinder, H.PAn MgB2 race track coil intended for demonstrating a down scaled pole of a 10 MW direct drive wind turbine generator has been designed. The coil consists of 10 double pancake coils stacked into a race track coil with a cross section of 84 mm x 80 mm. The length of the straight section is 0.5 m and the diameter of the end sections is 0.3 m. Expanded to a straight section of 3.1 m it will produce about 1.5 T magnetic flux density in the air gap of the 10 MW 32 pole generator and about 3.0 T at the edge of the superconducting coil with an operation current density of the coil of 70 A/<mm2.IOP)uuid:421840158cac4be28084a221744d0452Dhttp://resolver.tudelft.nl/uuid:421840158cac4be28084a221744d0452\Feasibility Study of a 10 MW MgB2 Fully Superconducting Generator for Offshore Wind Turbines2Kostopoulos, D.; Liu, D.; Genani, G.; Polinder, H.Offshore wind is considered a vital component of the future large scale renewable generation portfolio. Intense R&D effort is occurring in both the technology and the supply chain aiming at cost reduction. The drivetrain of wind turbines is an area of continuous evolution with currently no one standard configuration in the industry. It is anticipated that in order to upscale offshore wind turbines in the 10+ MW power range innovation is necessary in this subsystem. A possible solution could be the adoption of superconductivity technology. The potential benefits are multiple comprising weight, dimension and cost reduction in both capital and operating costs. In this paper a rough analytical design is presented of an MgB2 fully superconducting wind turbine generator (WTG). An analytical current sheet distribution is adopted to calculate the magnetic field of the generator and a finite element method (FEM) analysis is used to verify the field calculation. The objective of this work is to assess the technical feasibility of this generator topology and attempt to extract more general conclusions regarding the potential application of superconducting drivetrains in offshore wind turbines. European Wind Energy Association
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