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Janssen, G.C.A.M. (author), Kamminga, J.D. (author)
In the absence of thermal stress, tensile stress in hard metal films is caused by grain boundary shrinkage and compressive stress is caused by ion peening. It is shown that the two contributions are additive. Moreover tensile stress generated at the grain boundaries does not relax by ion bombardment. In polycrystalline hard metal films the grain...
journal article 2004