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Shen, J. (author), Heedt, S. (author), Borsoi, F. (author), van Heck, B. (author), Gazibegovic, S. (author), op het Veld, R.L.M. (author), Car, D. (author), Ramakers, S.J.J. (author), Wang, G. (author), Xu, D. (author), Bouman, D. (author), Geresdi, A. (author), Bakkers, E.P.A.M. (author), Kouwenhoven, L.P. (author)
The number of electrons in small metallic or semiconducting islands is quantised. When tunnelling is enabled via opaque barriers this number can change by an integer. In superconductors the addition is in units of two electron charges (2e), reflecting that the Cooper pair condensate must have an even parity. This ground state (GS) is...
journal article 2018