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Emadi, A. (author), Wu, H. (author), De Graaf, G. (author), Wolffenbuttel, R.F. (author)
This paper presents the design, fabrication and characterization of Infra-Red (IR) Linear Variable Optical Filter (LVOF)-based micro-spectrometers. Two LVOF microspectrometer designs have been realized: one for operating in the 1400 nm to 2500 nm wavelength range and another between 3000 nm and 5000 nm. The IR LVOFs have been fabricated in an IC...
journal article 2013
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Emadi, A. (author), Wu, H. (author), De Graaf, G. (author), Enoksson, P. (author), Higino Correia, J. (author), Wolffenbuttel, R. (author)
An IC-compatible linear variable optical filter (LVOF) for application in the UV spectral range between 310 and 400 nm has been fabricated using resist reflow and an optimized dry-etching. The LVOF is mounted on the top of a commercially available CMOS camera to result in a UV microspectrometer. A special calibration technique has been employed...
journal article 2012
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Emadi, A. (author), Wu, H. (author), De Graaf, G. (author), Wolffenbuttel, R.F. (author)
In this paper the concept of a microspectrometer based on a Linear Variable Optical Filter (LVOF) for operation in the visible spectrum is presented and used in two different designs: the first is for the narrow spectral band between 610 nm and 680 nm, whereas the other is for the wider spectral band between 570 nm and 740 nm. Design...
journal article 2011
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Wu, H. (author), Vollebregt, S. (author), Emadi, A. (author), De Graaf, G. (author), Ishihara, R. (author), Wolffenbuttel, R.F. (author)
A thermopile based detector array has advantages when used for an infrared (IR) micro-spectrometer, as compared to an array of photon detector, such as flat spectral response and uncooled operation. A thermal detector requires a good absorber to achieve a high absorption coefficient in the spectral range of interest. Several solutions are...
journal article 2011
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Wu, H. (author), Emadi, A. (author), De Graaf, G. (author), Leijtens, J. (author), Wolffenbuttel, R.F. (author)
A sun sensor is usually included in a satellite for optically measuring the position relative to the sun. The accuracy of a conventional sun sensor is affected by reflected sunlight at the nearby earth atmosphere: the albedo radiation. The part of the spectrum at near IR (1.5 ?m) is not included in the albedo radiation, due to the high water...
journal article 2011
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Emadi, A. (author), Wu, H. (author), De Graaf, G. (author), Hedsten, K. (author), Enoksson, P. (author), Correia, J.H. (author), Wolffenbuttel, R.F. (author)
This paper presents the design, fabrication and spectral measurements of an Ultra-Violet (UV) Linear Variable Optical Filter (LVOF)-based micro-spectrometer operating in the 300 nm–400 nm wavelength range. The UV LVOF has been fabricated in an IC-Compatible process using resist reflow. Characterization by passing monochromatic light through the...
journal article 2010
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Emadi, A. (author), Grabarnik, S. (author), Wu, H. (author), De Graaf, R.F. (author), Wolffenbuttel, R.F. (author)
This paper presents spectral measurements using a linear variable optical filter. A LVOF has been developed for operation in the 530 nm–720 nm spectral band and has been fabricated in an IC-compatible process. The LVOF has been mounted on a CMOS camera. A Least Mean Square algorithm has been implemented to calculate the spectrum of light from...
journal article 2010
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Wu, H. (author), Emadi, A. (author), De Graaf, G. (author), Wolffenbuttel, R.F. (author)
A thermopile-based detector array for use in a miniaturized Infrared (IR) spectrometer has been designed and fabricated using CMOS compatible MEMS technology. The emphasis is on the optimal of the detector array at the system level, while considering the thermal design, the dimensional constraints of a design on a chip and the CMOS compatibility...
conference paper 2010
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Liu, C. (author), Emadi, A. (author), Wu, H. (author), De Graaf, G. (author), Wolffenbuttel, R.F. (author)
A linear array of 128 Active Pixel Sensors has been developed in standard CMOS technology and a Linear Variable Optical Filter (LVOF) is added using CMOS-compatible post-process, resulting in a single chip highly-integrated highresolution microspectrometer. The optical requirements imposed by the LVOF result in photodetectors with small pitch...
conference paper 2010
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Emadi, A. (author), Grabarnik, S. (author), Wu, H. (author), De Graaf, G. (author), Hedsten, K. (author), Enoksson, P. (author), Correia, J.H. (author), Wolffenbuttel, R.F. (author)
This paper reports on the functional and spectral characterization of a microspectrometer based on a CMOS detector array covered by an IC-Compatible Linear Variable Optical Filter (LVOF). The Fabry-Perot LVOF is composed of 15 dielectric layers with a tapered middle cavity layer, which has been fabricated in an IC-Compatible process using resist...
conference paper 2010
document
Emadi, A. (author), Wu, H. (author), De Graaf, G. (author), Wolffenbuttel, R.F. (author)
This paper reports on a CMOS-Compatible Linear Variable Optical Filter (LVOF) visible micro-spectrometer. The CMOS-compatible post process for fabrication of the LVOF has been used for integration of the LVOF with a CMOS chip containing a 128-element photodiode array and readout circuitry. Fabrication of LVOF involves a process for fabrication...
conference paper 2010
document
Wu, H. (author), Emadi, A. (author), De Graaf, G. (author), Wolffenbuttel, R.F. (author)
The miniaturized IR spectrometer discussed in this paper is comprised of: slit, planar imaging diffraction grating and Thermo-Electric (TE) detector array, which is fabricated using CMOS compatible MEMS technology. The resolving power is maximized by spacing the TE elements at an as narrow as possible pitch, which is limited by processing...
conference paper 2010
document
Wu, H. (author), Grabarnik, S. (author), Emadi, A. (author), De Graaf, G. (author), Wolffenbuttel, R.F. (author)
The spectral resolution of a MEMS-based IR microspectrometer critically depends on the thermal cross-talk between adjacent TE elements in the detector array. Thermal isolation between elements is realized by using bulk micromachining directly following CMOS processing. This paper reports on the characterization results of bridge-shaped TE...
journal article 2009
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Emadi, A. (author), Wu, H. (author), Grabarnik, S. (author), De Graaf, G. (author), Wolffenbuttel, R.F. (author)
This paper reports on the IC-compatible fabrication of vertically tapered optical layers for use in linear variable optical filters (LVOF). The taper angle is fully defined by a mask design. Only one masked lithography step is required for defining strips in a photoresist with trenches etched therein of a density varying along the length of the...
journal article 2009
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Grabarnik, S. (author), Emadi, A. (author), Wu, H. (author), De Graaf, G. (author), Wolffenbuttel, R.F. (author)
A concept for a highly miniaturized spectrometer featuring a two-component design is presented. The first component is a planar chip that integrates an input slit and aberration-correcting diffraction grating with an image sensor and is fabricated using microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technologies. Due to the fabrication in a simple MEMS...
journal article 2008
document
Grabarnik, S. (author), Emadi, A. (author), Wu, H. (author), De Graaf, G. (author), Wolffenbuttel, R.F. (author)
This paper reports on the development and validation of a new technology for the fabrication of variable line-spacing non-planar diffraction gratings to be used in compact spectrometers. The technique is based on the standard lithographic process commonly used for pattern transfer onto a flat substrate. The essence of the technology presented...
conference paper 2008
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Grabarnik, S. (author), Emadi, A. (author), Wu, H. (author), De Graaf, G. (author), Vdovin, G. (author), Wolffenbuttel, R.F. (author)
journal article 2008
document
Wu, H. (author), Grabarnik, S. (author), Emadi, A. (author), De Graaf, G. (author), Wolffenbuttel, R.F. (author)
journal article 2008
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