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Xin, Y. (author), Pandraud, G. (author), Zhang, Y. (author), French, P.J. (author)
In this paper, we propose a novel vertical SU-8 waveguide for evanescent analyte sensing. The waveguide is designed to possess a vertical and narrow structure to generate evanescent waves on both sides of the waveguide's surface, aimed at increasing the sensitivity by enlarging the sensing areas. We performed simulations to monitor the...
journal article 2019
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Quiros Solano, W.F. (author), Gaio, N. (author), Silvestri, C. (author), Pandraud, G. (author), Dekker, R. (author), Sarro, P.M. (author)
Organ-on-chip (OOC) is becoming the alternative tool to conventional in vitro screening. Heart-on-chip devices including microstructures for mechanical and electrical stimulation have been demonstrated to be advantageous to study structural organization and maturation of heart cells. This paper presents the development of metal and polymeric...
journal article 2019
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Xin, Yu (author), Pandraud, G. (author), French, P.J. (author)
In this Letter, a slope transfer method to fabricate vertical waveguide couplers is proposed. This method utilises wet etched Si as a mask, and takes advantage of dry etching selectivity between Si and SiC, to successfully transfer the profile from the Si master into SiC. By adopting this method, a <2° slope is achieved. Such a taper can...
journal article 2019
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Rossi, Massimiliano (author), Kralj, Nenad (author), Zippilli, Stefano (author), Natali, Riccardo (author), Borrielli, Antonio (author), Pandraud, G. (author), Serra, E. (author), Di Giuseppe, Giovanni (author), Vitali, David (author)
Normal-mode splitting is the most evident signature of strong coupling between two interacting subsystems. It occurs when two subsystems exchange energy between themselves faster than they dissipate it to the environment. Here we experimentally show that a weakly coupled optomechanical system at room temperature can manifest normal-mode...
journal article 2018
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Pontin, A. (author), Bonaldi, M. (author), Borrielli, A. (author), Marconi, L. (author), Marino, F. (author), Pandraud, G. (author), Prodi, G.A. (author), Sarro, P.M. (author), Serra, E. (author), Marin, F. (author)
According to quantum mechanics, if we keep observing a continuous variable we generally disturb its evolution. For a class of observables, however, it is possible to implement a so-called quantum nondemolition measurement: by confining the perturbation to the conjugate variable, the observable is estimated with arbitrary accuracy, or prepared...
journal article 2018
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Neklyudova, M. (author), Erdamar, A.K. (author), Vicarelli, L. (author), Heerema, S.J. (author), Rehfeldt, T. (author), Pandraud, G. (author), Koladouz Esfahani, Z. (author), Dekker, C. (author), Zandbergen, H.W. (author)
We present a technique to fabricate ultrathin (down to 20 nm) uniform electron transparent windows at dedicated locations in a SiN membrane for in situ transmission electron microscopy experiments. An electron-beam (e-beam) resist is spray-coated on the backside of the membrane in a KOH-etched cavity in silicon which is patterned using...
journal article 2017
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Rossi, Massimiliano (author), Kralj, Nenad (author), Zippilli, Stefano (author), Natali, Riccardo (author), Borrielli, Antonio (author), Pandraud, G. (author), Serra, E. (author), Di Giuseppe, Giovanni (author), Vitali, David (author)
We realize a phase-sensitive closed-loop control scheme to engineer the fluctuations of the pump field which drives an optomechanical system and show that the corresponding cooling dynamics can be significantly improved. In particular, operating in the counterintuitive "antisquashing" regime of positive feedback and increased field...
journal article 2017
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Pandraud, G. (author), Milosavljevic, S. (author), Sammak, A. (author), Cherchi, Matteo (author), Jovic, A. (author), Sarro, P.M. (author)
In this work, we present the results of integrated Ge detectors grown on a Si photonic platform for sensing applications. The detectors are fabricated on a passive photonic circuit for maximum coupling efficiency. Measurement results at 1300 nm wavelength show a responsivity of 0.2 A/W and very low dark current levels. For a voltage range...
conference paper 2017
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Thomas, S. (author), Jovic, A. (author), Morana, B. (author), Buja, F. (author), Gkouzou, A. (author), Pandraud, G. (author), Sarro, P.M. (author)
In this paper we present the characterization of the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of in-situ doped polycrystalline SiC thin films, obtained by low pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD). The material is characterized using V-beam actuators on which the temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) and the in-plane displacement...
journal article 2016
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Serra, E. (author), Bawaj, M. (author), Borrielli, A. (author), Di Giuseppe, G. (author), Forte, S. (author), Kralj, N. (author), Malossi, N. (author), Marconi, L. (author), Marin, F. (author), Marino, F. (author), Morana, B. (author), Natali, R. (author), Pandraud, G. (author), Pontin, A. (author), Prodi, G.A. (author), Rossi, M. (author), Sarro, P.M. (author), Vitali, D. (author), Bonaldi, M. (author)
In view of the integration of membrane resonators with more complex MEMS structures, we developed a general fabrication procedure for circular shape SiN<sub><i>x</i></sub> membranes using Deep Reactive Ion Etching (DRIE). Large area and high-stress SiN<sub><i>x</i></sub> membranes were fabricated and used as optomechanical resonators in a...
journal article 2016
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Quiros Solano, W.F. (author), Gaio, N. (author), Silvestri, C. (author), Pandraud, G. (author), Sarro, P.M. (author)
Sensing and stimulating microstructures are necessary to develop more specialized and highly accurate Organ-on-Chip (OOC) platforms. In this paper, we present the integration of a conductive polymer, poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS), on a stretchable membrane, core element of an Heart-on-Chip. The electrical...
journal article 2016
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Borrielli, A. (author), Pontin, A. (author), Cataliotti, F.S. (author), Marconi, L. (author), Marin, F. (author), Marino, F. (author), Pandraud, G. (author), Prodi, G.A. (author), Serra, E. (author), Bonaldi, M. (author)
We present an oscillating micromirror with mechanical quality factors Q up to 1.2×106 at cryogenic temperature and optical losses lower than 20 ppm. The device is specifically designed to ease the detection of ponderomotive squeezing (or, more generally, to produce a cavity quantum optomechanical system) at frequencies of about 100 kHz. The...
journal article 2015
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Tran, A.T. (author), Pandraud, G. (author), Tichelaar, F.D. (author), Nguyen, M.D. (author), Schellevis, H. (author), Sarro, P.M. (author)
The structure of AlN layers grown on Ti with and without an AlN interlayer between the Si substrate and the Ti layer is investigated. The AlN grains take over the orientation of the Ti columnar grains in both cases. Surprisingly, the Ti grains do not take over completely the orientations of the AlN grains of the interlayer, and show the same...
journal article 2013
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Huang, Y. (author), Pandraud, G. (author), Sarro, P.M. (author)
TiO2 is an interesting and promising material for micro-/nanoelectromechanical systems (MEMS/NEMS). For high performance and reliable MEMS/NEMS, optimization of the optical characteristics, mechanical stress, and especially surface smoothness of TiO2 is required. To overcome the roughness issue of the TiO2 films due to crystallization during...
journal article 2012
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Pandraud, G. (author), Margallo-Balbas, E. (author), Sarro, P.M. (author)
We have studied, for the first time, the sensing capabilities of plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) SiC-SiO2-SiC horizontal slot waveguides. Optical propagation losses were measured to be 23.9 dB?cm for the quasi-transverse magnetic mode. To assess the potential of this device as a sensor, we simulated the confinement factor in...
journal article 2012
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Tran, A.T. (author), Pandraud, G. (author), Schellevis, H. (author), Sarro, P.M. (author)
Actuation enhancement for AlN piezoelectric cantilevers is achieved by coating slender AlN beams with a thin PECVD silicon nitride (SiN) layer. Very good linearity and high deflection, up to 19 nm/V of actuation deflection for 200 ?m long cantilevers, at quasi-static mode, is obtained for a 500 nm SiN top layer. This value is three times larger...
journal article 2012
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Huang, Y. (author), Pandraud, G. (author), Sarro, P.M. (author)
We propose and experimentally demonstrate a reflectance-based photonic crystal (PC) liquid sensor. The PC is made of two-dimensional TiO2 nanopillar arrays. Such a reflectance-based structure with large functional area not only simplifies the optical guiding but also enhances the sensor signal. A linear shift of reflectance peaks is found for...
journal article 2012
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Pandraud, G. (author), Purniawan, A. (author), Margallo-Balbás, E. (author), Sarro, P.M. (author)
We fabricated horizontal slot waveguides using two low temperature deposition techniques ensuring the full compatibility of the processes with CMOS technology. Slots width as thin as 45 nm with smooth slot surfaces can easily be fabricated with simple photolithographic steps. Fundamental TM-like slot mode in which the E-field is greatly enhanced...
conference paper 2012
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Purniawan, A. (author), Pandraud, G. (author), Vakalopoulos, K.A. (author), French, P.J. (author), Sarro, P.M. (author)
conference paper 2012
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Alan, T. (author), Yokosawa, T. (author), Gaspar, J. (author), Pandraud, G. (author), Paul, O. (author), Creemer, F. (author), Sarro, P.M. (author), Zandbergen, H.W. (author)
Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of (de-)hydrogenation reactions is crucial to characterize efficiency of hydrogen storage materials. The nanoreactor, a micromachined channel with 15-nm-thick windows, effectively confines the gas flow to an electron-transparent chamber during TEM of reactions. Realistic experiments require very high...
journal article 2012
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