Searched for: author%3A%22Bazilinskyy%2C+P.%22
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de Winter, J.C.F. (author), Hoogmoed, Jim (author), Stapel, J.C.J. (author), Dodou, D. (author), Bazilinskyy, P. (author)
Perceived risk, or subjective risk, is an important concept in the field of traffic psychology and automated driving. In this paper, we investigate whether perceived risk in images of traffic scenes can be predicted from computer vision features that may also be used by automated vehicles (AVs). We conducted an international crowdsourcing...
journal article 2023
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Bazilinskyy, P. (author), Merino Martinez, R. (author), Ozcan Vieira, E. (author), Dodou, D. (author), de Winter, J.C.F. (author)
Exterior vehicle sounds have been introduced in electric vehicles and as external human–machine interfaces for automated vehicles. While previous research has studied the effect of exterior vehicle sounds on detectability and acceptance, the present study takes on a different approach by examining the efficacy of such sounds in deterring...
journal article 2023
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Mok, Chun Sang (author), Bazilinskyy, P. (author), de Winter, J.C.F. (author)
Automated vehicles (AVs) can perform low-level control tasks but are not always capable of proper decision-making. This paper presents a concept of eye-based maneuver control for AV-pedestrian interaction. Previously, it was unknown whether the AV should conduct a stopping maneuver when the driver looks at the pedestrian or looks away from...
journal article 2022
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Onkhar, V. (author), Bazilinskyy, P. (author), Dodou, D. (author), de Winter, J.C.F. (author)
Many fatal accidents that involve pedestrians occur at road crossings, and are attributed to a breakdown of communication between pedestrians and drivers. Thus, it is important to investigate how forms of communication in traffic, such as eye contact, influence crossing decisions. Thus far, there is little information about the effect of...
journal article 2022
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Bazilinskyy, P. (author), Dodou, D. (author), Eisma, Y.B. (author), Vlakveld, Willem (author), de Winter, J.C.F. (author)
Automated vehicles (AVs) may feature blinded (i.e. blacked-out) windows and external human–machine interfaces (eHMIs), and the driver may be inattentive or absent, but how these features affect cyclists is unknown. In a crowdsourcing study, participants viewed images of approaching vehicles from a cyclist's perspective and decided whether to...
journal article 2022
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Bazilinskyy, P. (author), Kooijman, L. (author), Dodou, D. (author), Mallant, K.P.T. (author), Roosens, V.E.R. (author), Middelweerd, M.D.L.M. (author), Overbeek, L.D. (author), de Winter, J.C.F. (author)
Past research suggests that displays on the exterior of the car, known as eHMIs, can be effective in helping pedestrians to make safe crossing decisions. This study examines a new application of eHMIs, namely the provision of directional information in scenarios where the pedestrian is almost hit by a car. In an experiment using a head-mounted...
conference paper 2022
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Sripada, Anirudh (author), Bazilinskyy, P. (author), de Winter, J.C.F. (author)
It may be necessary to introduce new modes of communication between automated vehicles (AVs) and pedestrians. This research proposes using the AV’s lateral deviation within the lane to communicate if the AV will yield to the pedestrian. In an online experiment, animated video clips depicting an approaching AV were shown to participants. Each...
journal article 2021
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Onkhar, V. (author), Bazilinskyy, P. (author), Stapel, J.C.J. (author), Dodou, D. (author), Gavrila, D. (author), de Winter, J.C.F. (author)
Non-verbal communication, such as eye contact between drivers and pedestrians, has been regarded as one way to reduce accident risk. So far, studies have assumed rather than objectively measured the occurrence of eye contact. We address this research gap by developing an eye contact detection method and testing it in an indoor experiment with...
journal article 2021
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Bazilinskyy, P. (author), Kooijman, L. (author), Dodou, D. (author), de Winter, J.C.F. (author)
External human-machine interfaces (eHMIs) may be useful for communicating the intention of an automated vehicle (AV) to a pedestrian, but it is unclear which eHMI design is most effective. In a crowdsourced experiment, we examined the effects of (1) colour (red, green, cyan), (2) position (roof, bumper, windshield), (3) message (WALK, DON'T...
journal article 2021
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Oudshoorn, Max (author), de Winter, J.C.F. (author), Bazilinskyy, P. (author), Dodou, D. (author)
Various external human-machine interfaces (eHMIs) have been proposed that communicate the intent of automated vehicles (AVs) to vulnerable road users. However, there is no consensus on which eHMI concept is most suitable for intent communication. In nature, animals have evolved the ability to communicate intent via visual signals. Inspired by...
journal article 2021
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de Winter, J.C.F. (author), Bazilinskyy, P. (author), Wesdorp, Dale (author), de Vlam, Valerie (author), Hopmans, Belle (author), Visscher, Just (author), Dodou, D. (author)
We examined what pedestrians look at when walking through a parking garage. Thirty-six participants walked a short route in a parking garage while their eye movements and head rotations were recorded with a Tobii Pro Glasses 2 eye-tracker. The participants’ fixations were then classified into 14 areas of interest. The results showed that...
journal article 2021
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Bazilinskyy, P. (author), Sakuma, Tsuyoshi (author), de Winter, J.C.F. (author)
An important question in the development of automated vehicles (AVs) is which driving style AVs should adopt and how other road users perceive them. The current study aimed to determine which AV behaviours contribute to pedestrians' judgements as to whether the vehicle is driving manually or automatically as well as judgements of likeability....
journal article 2021
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Bazilinskyy, P. (author), Dodou, D. (author), de Winter, J.C.F. (author)
In a crowdsourced experiment, the effects of distance and type of the approaching vehicle, traffic density, and visual clutter on pedestrians’ attention distribution were explored. 966 participants viewed 107 images of diverse traffic scenes for durations between 100 and 4000 ms. Participants’ eye-gaze data were collected using the TurkEyes...
conference paper 2021
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Bazilinskyy, P. (author), Kooijman, L. (author), Dodou, D. (author), de Winter, J.C.F. (author)
Driving simulators are regarded as valuable tools for human factors research on automated driving and traffic safety. However, simulators that enable the study of human-human interactions are rare. In this study, we present an open-source coupled simulator developed in Unity. The simulator supports input from head-mounted displays, motion suits,...
conference paper 2020
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Bazilinskyy, P. (author), Dodou, D. (author), de Winter, J.C.F. (author)
Future automated vehicles may be equipped with external human-machine interfaces (eHMIs) capable of signaling to pedestrians whether or not they can cross the road. There is currently no consensus on the correct colors for eHMIs. Industry and academia have already proposed a variety of eHMI colors, including red and green, as well as colors...
conference paper 2020
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Bazilinskyy, P. (author), Eisma, Y.B. (author), Dodou, D. (author), de Winter, J.C.F. (author)
Objective: Research has shown that perceived risk is a vital variable in the understanding of road traffic safety. Having experience in a particular traffic environment can be expected to affect perceived risk. More specifically, drivers may readily recognize traffic hazards when driving in their own world region, resulting in high perceived...
journal article 2020
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Bazilinskyy, P. (author), Bijker, Laurens (author), Dielissen, Tim (author), French, Shin (author), Mooijman, Tom (author), Peters, Luka (author), Happee, R. (author), Dodou, D. (author), de Winter, J.C.F. (author)
This study is the third iteration in a series of studies aimed to develop a system that allows driving blindfolded. We used a sonification approach, where the predicted angular error of the car 2 seconds into the future was translated into spatialized beeping sounds. In a driving simulator experiment, we tested with 20 participants whether a...
conference paper 2019
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Bazilinskyy, P. (author), Larsson, Pontus (author), Johansson, Emma (author), de Winter, J.C.F. (author)
The number of trucks that are equipped with driver assistance systems is increasing. These driver assistance systems typically offer binary auditory warnings or notifications upon lane departure, close headway, or automation (de)activation. Such binary sounds may annoy the driver if presented frequently. Truck drivers are well accustomed to the...
journal article 2019
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Bazilinskyy, P. (author), Dodou, D. (author), de Winter, J.C.F. (author)
The automotive industry has presented a variety of external human-machine interfaces (eHMIs) for automated vehicles (AVs). However, there appears to be no consensus on which types of eHMIs are clear to vulnerable road users. Here, we present the results of two large crowdsourcing surveys on this topic. In the first survey, we asked...
journal article 2019
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Bazilinskyy, P. (author), Kyriakidis, M. (author), Dodou, D. (author), de Winter, J.C.F. (author)
When fully automated cars will be widespread is a question that has attracted considerable attention from futurists, car manufacturers, and academics. This paper aims to poll the public's expectations regarding the deployment of fully automated cars. In 15 crowdsourcing surveys conducted between June 2014 and January 2019, we obtained answers...
journal article 2019
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