Searched for: author%3A%22Happee%2C+R.%22
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Kim, S. (author), van Egmond, R. (author), Happee, R. (author)
In conditionally automated driving (SAE level 3), drivers may take their eyes off the road but will still need to be ready to take control and will, therefore, benefit from information on automation. This study aims to investigate the effectiveness of automation manoeuvre information provided through spatial sound, traditional notification sound...
journal article 2024
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Kotian, V. (author), Irmak, T. (author), Pool, D.M. (author), Happee, R. (author)
Users of automated vehicles will engage in other activities and take their eyes off the road, making them prone to motion sickness. To resolve this, the current paper validates models predicting sickness in response to motion and visual conditions. We validate published models of vestibular and visual sensory integration that have been used...
journal article 2024
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de Winkel, K.N. (author), Irmak, T. (author), Happee, R. (author), Shyrokau, B. (author)
A prime concern for automated vehicles is motion comfort, as an uncomfortable ride may reduce acceptance of the technology amongst the general population. However, it is not clear how transient motions typical for travelling by car affect the experience of comfort. Here, we determine the relation between properties of vehicle motions (i.e.,...
journal article 2023
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Talsma, Tessa M.W. (author), Hassanain, Omar (author), Happee, R. (author), de Winkel, K.N. (author)
Increasing levels of vehicle automation are envisioned to allow drivers to engage in other activities but are also likely to increase the incidence of Carsickness or Motion Sickness (MS). Ideally, MS is studied in a safe and controlled environment, such as a driving simulator. However, only few studies address the suitability of driving...
journal article 2023
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Tabone, W. (author), Happee, R. (author), García, Jorge (author), Lee, Yee Mun (author), Lupetti, M.L. (author), Merat, Natasha (author), de Winter, J.C.F. (author)
Augmented Reality (AR) technology could be utilised to assist pedestrians in navigating safely through traffic. However, whether potential users would understand and use such AR solutions is currently unknown. Nine novel AR interfaces for pedestrian-vehicle communication, previously developed using an experience-based design method, were...
journal article 2023
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Irmak, T. (author), Pool, D.M. (author), de Winkel, K.N. (author), Happee, R. (author)
The human motion perception system has long been linked to motion sickness through state estimation conflict terms. However, to date, the extent to which available perception models are able to predict motion sickness, or which of the employed perceptual mechanisms are of most relevance to sickness prediction, has not been studied. In this...
journal article 2023
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Nordhoff, S. (author), Lee, John D. (author), Calvert, S.C. (author), Berge, S.H. (author), Hagenzieker, Marjan (author), Happee, R. (author)
Tesla's Full Self-Driving Beta (FSD) program introduces technology that extends the operational design domain of standard Autopilot from highways to urban roads. This research conducted 103 in-depth semi-structured interviews with users of Tesla's FSD Beta and standard Autopilot to evaluate the impact on user behavior and perception. It was...
journal article 2023
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Oskina, M.I. (author), Farah, H. (author), Morsink, Peter (author), Happee, R. (author), van Arem, B. (author)
The operation of automated vehicles (AVs) on shared roads requires attention concerning their interactions with vulnerable road users (VRUs), such as cyclists. This study investigates the safety of cyclists when they interact with an AV and compares it with their interaction with a conventional vehicle. Overall, 29 cyclists participated in a...
journal article 2023
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Nordhoff, S. (author), Stapel, J.C.J. (author), He, X. (author), Gentner, Alexandre (author), Happee, R. (author)
The present study surveyed actual extensive users of SAE Level 2 partially automated cars to investigate how driver’s characteristics (i.e., socio-demographics, driving experience, personality), system performance, perceived safety, and trust in partial automation influence use of partial automation. 81% of respondents stated that they use their...
journal article 2023
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Haasnoot, Jelle (author), Happee, R. (author), van der Wijk, V. (author), Schwab, A.L. (author)
Bicycle simulators have been the subject of considerable research, however, few of these attempts have integrated direct balance control and realistic freedom of motion to deliver a real-world dynamic cycling experience. This study presents the BIKE (Bicycle Intrinsic Kinematics Emulator) system, a kinematic bicycle simulator, developed with...
journal article 2023
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Dell'Orto, G. (author), Ballo, F.M. (author), Mastinu, G. (author), Happee, R. (author), Moore, J.K. (author)
The use of bicycles as a cheap and healthy way to travel the “last mile” is spreading widely in the cities. This new way of dealing with short trips, known as “micro-mobility”, is also fostered by the new awareness of the global impact of ICE vehicles and rising fuel costs. In recent years, also cargo bikes are knowing a large use, both for...
abstract 2023
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Kim, S. (author), Happee, R. (author), van Egmond, R. (author)
The design of take-over requests in automated vehicles traditionally focuses on safety and reaction time. We are interested in how take-over requests can be designed from a broader user experience perspective while ensuring safety. This paper proposes designs for ambient sound (i.e., soundscape) and driving noise to inform the driver of...
journal article 2023
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Happee, R. (author), Kotian, V. (author), de Winkel, K.N. (author)
Background: To counteract gravity, trunk motion, and other perturbations, the human head–neck system requires continuous muscular stabilization. In this study, we combine a musculoskeletal neck model with models of sensory integration (SI) to unravel the role of vestibular, visual, and muscle sensory cues in head–neck stabilization and relate SI...
journal article 2023
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Jain, V. (author), Kumar, Sandeep Suresh (author), Papaioannou, G. (author), Happee, R. (author), Shyrokau, B. (author)
In the transition from partial to high automation, occupants will no longer be actively involved in driving. This will allow the use of travel time for work or leisure, where high comfort levels preventing motion sickness are required. In this paper, an optimal trajectory planning algorithm is presented in order to minimise motion sickness in...
journal article 2023
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El Jouhri, A. (author), El Sharkawy, A. (author), Paksoy, H. (author), Youssif, O.K.S.A. (author), He, X. (author), Kim, S. (author), Happee, R. (author)
Introduction: SAE Level 3 is known as conditional driving automation. As long as certain conditions are met, there is no need to supervise the technology and the driver can engage in non-driving related tasks (NDRTs). However, a human driver must be present and alert to take over when the automation is facing its system limits. When such an...
journal article 2023
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Yuan, Y. (author), Wang, X. (author), Calvert, S.C. (author), Happee, R. (author), Wang, M. (author)
Current driver behaviour models (DBMs) are primarily designed for the general driver population under specific scenarios, such as car following or lane changing. Hence DBMs capturing individual behaviour under various scenarios are lacking. This paper presents a novel method to quantify individual perceived driving risk in the longitudinal...
journal article 2023
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Kotian, V. (author), Pool, D.M. (author), Happee, R. (author)
Users of automated vehicles will move away from being drivers to passengers, preferably engaged in other activities such as reading or using laptops and smartphones, which will strongly increase susceptibility to motion sickness. Similarly, in driving simulators, the presented visual motion with scaled or even without any physical motion causes...
conference paper 2023
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Messiou, C. (author), Papaioannou, G. (author), Happee, R. (author)
The goal of this paper is to contribute to the accurate prediction of human body motion by proposing a novel head-neck model for dynamic driving scenarios with complex vehicle motions. While automated vehicles are considered a potential solution to several transportation issues, there are still significant challenges that need to be addressed...
conference paper 2023
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Desai, R.R. (author), Cvetković, M. (author), Papaioannou, G. (author), Happee, R. (author)
Due to the complexity of the human body and its neuromuscular stabilization, it has been challenging to efficiently and accurately predict human motion and capture posture while being driven. Existing simple models of the seated human body are mostly two-dimensional and developed in the mid-sagittal plane exposed to in-plane excitation. Such...
conference paper 2023
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Roth, M. (author), Stapel, J.C.J. (author), Happee, R. (author), Gavrila, D. (author)
We present a novel method for vehicle-pedestrian path prediction that takes into account the awareness of the driver and the pedestrian towards each other. The method jointly models the paths of vehicle and pedestrian within a single Dynamic Bayesian Network (DBN). In this DBN, sub-graphs model the environment and entity-specific context cues...
journal article 2022
Searched for: author%3A%22Happee%2C+R.%22
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