Searched for: author%3A%22de+Winter%2C+J.C.F.%22
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Bazilinskyy, P. (author), Dodou, D. (author), de Winter, J.C.F. (author)
In a crowdsourced experiment, the effects of distance and type of the approaching vehicle, traffic density, and visual clutter on pedestrians’ attention distribution were explored. 966 participants viewed 107 images of diverse traffic scenes for durations between 100 and 4000 ms. Participants’ eye-gaze data were collected using the TurkEyes...
conference paper 2021
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de Winter, J.C.F. (author), Petermeijer, S.M. (author), Kooijman, L. (author), Dodou, D. (author)
Several papers by Eckhard Hess from the 1960s and 1970s report that the pupils dilate or constrict according to the interest value, arousing content, or mental demands of visual stimuli. However, Hess mostly used small sample sizes and undocumented luminance control. In a first experiment (N = 182) and a second preregistered experiment (N =...
journal article 2021
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Bazilinskyy, P. (author), Kooijman, L. (author), Dodou, D. (author), de Winter, J.C.F. (author)
External human-machine interfaces (eHMIs) may be useful for communicating the intention of an automated vehicle (AV) to a pedestrian, but it is unclear which eHMI design is most effective. In a crowdsourced experiment, we examined the effects of (1) colour (red, green, cyan), (2) position (roof, bumper, windshield), (3) message (WALK, DON'T...
journal article 2021
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Tabone, W. (author), Lee, Yee Mun (author), Merat, Natasha (author), Happee, R. (author), de Winter, J.C.F. (author)
The future urban environment may consist of mixed traffic in which pedestrians interact with automated vehicles (AVs). However, it is still unclear how AVs should communicate their intentions to pedestrians. Augmented reality (AR) technology could transform the future of interactions between pedestrians and AVs by offering targeted and...
conference paper 2021
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Melman, T. (author), Abbink, D.A. (author), Mouton, Xavier (author), Tapus, Adriana (author), de Winter, J.C.F. (author)
Current predictors of fuel consumption are typically based on computer simulations or data collections in real traffic, where the route and vehicle type are not under the researcher's control. Here, we predicted fuel consumption using test track data, an approach that allowed for location-specific predictions. Ninety-one drivers drove a total...
journal article 2021
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Eisma, Y.B. (author), Reiff, A. (author), Kooijman, L. (author), Dodou, D. (author), de Winter, J.C.F. (author)
Future automated vehicles may be equipped with external Human-Machine Interfaces (eHMIs). Currently, little is known about the effect of the perspective of the eHMI message on crossing decisions of pedestrians. We performed an experiment to examine the effects of images depicting eHMI messages of different perspectives (egocentric from the...
journal article 2021
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Onkhar, V. (author), Bazilinskyy, P. (author), Stapel, J.C.J. (author), Dodou, D. (author), Gavrila, D. (author), de Winter, J.C.F. (author)
Non-verbal communication, such as eye contact between drivers and pedestrians, has been regarded as one way to reduce accident risk. So far, studies have assumed rather than objectively measured the occurrence of eye contact. We address this research gap by developing an eye contact detection method and testing it in an indoor experiment with...
journal article 2021
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Oudshoorn, Max (author), de Winter, J.C.F. (author), Bazilinskyy, P. (author), Dodou, D. (author)
Various external human-machine interfaces (eHMIs) have been proposed that communicate the intent of automated vehicles (AVs) to vulnerable road users. However, there is no consensus on which eHMI concept is most suitable for intent communication. In nature, animals have evolved the ability to communicate intent via visual signals. Inspired by...
journal article 2021
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Tabone, W. (author), de Winter, J.C.F. (author), Ackermann, Claudia (author), Bärgman, Jonas (author), Baumann, Martin (author), Deb, Shuchisnigdha (author), Emmenegger, Colleen (author), Habibovic, Azra (author), Hagenzieker, M.P. (author), Hancock, P. A. (author), Happee, R. (author), Krems, Josef (author), Lee, John D. (author), Martens, Marieke (author), Merat, Natasha (author), Norman, Don (author), Sheridan, Thomas B. (author), Stanton, Neville A. (author)
Automated driving research over the past decades has mostly focused on highway environments. Recent technological developments have drawn researchers and manufacturers to look ahead at introducing automated driving in cities. The current position paper examines this challenge from the viewpoint of scientific experts. Sixteen Human Factors...
journal article 2021
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Melman, T. (author), Visser, P. (author), Mouton, Xavier (author), de Winter, J.C.F. (author)
Modern computerized vehicles offer the possibility of changing vehicle parameters with the aim of creating a novel driving experience, such as an increased feeling of sportiness. For example, electric vehicles can be designed to provide an artificial sound, and the throttle mapping can be adjusted to give drivers the illusion that they are...
journal article 2021
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de Winter, J.C.F. (author), Stanton, Neville (author), Eisma, Y.B. (author)
The last decade has seen a surge of driving simulator research on automation-to-manual take-overs. In this commentary, we argue that most research within the take-over paradigm bears little resemblance to real automated driving. Furthermore, we claim that results within this paradigm could already be known based on published research from the...
journal article 2021
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de Winter, J.C.F. (author), Hancock, P. A. (author)
We review the theoretical foundation for the need for human factors science. Over the past 2.8 million years, humans and tools have co-evolved. However, in the last century, technology is introduced at a rate that exceeds human evolution. The proliferation of computers and, more recently, robots, introduces new cognitive demands, as the human...
review 2021
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Kolekar, S.B. (author), Petermeijer, S.M. (author), Boer, E.R. (author), de Winter, J.C.F. (author), Abbink, D.A. (author)
Quantifying drivers’ perceived risk is important in the design and evaluation of the behaviour of automated vehicles (AVs) and in predicting takeovers by the driver. A ‘Driver's Risk Field’ (DRF) function has been previously shown to be able to predict manual driving behaviour in several simulated scenarios. In this paper, we tested if the...
journal article 2021
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Kooijman, L. (author), Dodou, D. (author), Jansen, S. T. (author), Themans, T. S. (author), Russell, J. N.M. (author), Petermeijer, S.M. (author), Doorman, J. R.C. (author), Hablé, J. H. (author), Neubert, D. S. (author), Vos, M. J.C. (author), de Winter, J.C.F. (author)
Much psychological research uses pupil diameter measurements to investigate the cognitive and emotional effects of visual stimuli. A potential problem is that accommodating at a nearby point causes the pupil to constrict. This study examined to what extent accommodation is a confounder in pupillometry research. Participants solved...
journal article 2021
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Doubek, F.H. (author), Salzmann, Falk (author), de Winter, J.C.F. (author)
Future vehicles may drive automatically in a human-like manner or contain systems that monitor human driving ability. Algorithms of these systems must have knowledge of criteria of good and safe driving behavior with regard to different driving styles. In the current study, interviews were conducted with 30 drivers, including driving...
journal article 2021
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Bazilinskyy, P. (author), Sakuma, Tsuyoshi (author), de Winter, J.C.F. (author)
An important question in the development of automated vehicles (AVs) is which driving style AVs should adopt and how other road users perceive them. The current study aimed to determine which AV behaviours contribute to pedestrians' judgements as to whether the vehicle is driving manually or automatically as well as judgements of likeability....
journal article 2021
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Epke, Michael R. (author), Kooijman, L. (author), de Winter, J.C.F. (author)
Automated vehicles (AVs) are able to detect pedestrians reliably but still have difficulty in predicting pedestrians' intentions from their implicit body language. This study examined the effects of using explicit hand gestures and receptive external human-machine interfaces (eHMIs) in the interaction between pedestrians and AVs. Twenty-six...
journal article 2021
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Eisma, Y.B. (author), de Winter, J.C.F. (author)
In the inspection time (IT) paradigm, participants view two lines of unequal length (called the Pi-figure) for a short exposure time, and then judge which of the two lines was longer. Early research has interpreted IT as a simple index of mental speed, which does not involve motor activity. However, more recent studies have associated IT with...
journal article 2020
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Bazilinskyy, P. (author), Kooijman, L. (author), Dodou, D. (author), de Winter, J.C.F. (author)
Driving simulators are regarded as valuable tools for human factors research on automated driving and traffic safety. However, simulators that enable the study of human-human interactions are rare. In this study, we present an open-source coupled simulator developed in Unity. The simulator supports input from head-mounted displays, motion suits,...
conference paper 2020
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Krüger, Matti (author), Driessen, T. (author), Wiebel-Herboth, Christiane B. (author), de Winter, J.C.F. (author), Wersing, Heiko (author)
With the rise of partially automated cars, drivers are more and more required to judge the degree of responsibility that can be delegated to vehicle assistant systems. This can be supported by utilizing interfaces that intuitively convey real-time reliabilities of system functions such as environment sensing. We designed a vibrotactile...
journal article 2020
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