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Kavisha, K. (author), Labetski, A. (author), Arroyo Ohori, G.A.K. (author), Ledoux, H. (author), Stoter, J.E. (author)
The relatively new Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) standard LandInfra documents in its data model land and civil engineering infrastructure features. It has a Geography Markup Language (GML) implementation, OGC InfraGML, which has essentially no software support and is rarely used in practice. In order to share the benefits of LandInfra (and...
journal article 2019
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Noardo, F. (author), Arroyo Ohori, G.A.K. (author), Biljecki, F. (author), Krijnen, Thomas (author), Ellul, Claire (author), Harrie, Lars (author), Stoter, J.E. (author)
GeoBIM, the integration of 3D geoinformation (Geo) with building information models (BIM), is a subject of increasing attention in both domains. A well-known practical challenge for this integration is the mixed state of software support for open standards in each domain that would ease the integration. This is often known by practitioners but...
journal article 2019
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Labetski, A. (author), Kavisha, K. (author), Ledoux, H. (author), Stoter, J.E. (author)
While there exist international standards for geospatial metadata (ISO 19115), these are rarely used in practice for 3D datasets, and one of the OGC standards for 3D city models, CityGML, does not offer a mechanism to store metadata in a structured way. Having metadata in CityGML files, which are in practice often very large and complex, would...
journal article 2018
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Labetski, A. (author), van Gerwen, Stefan (author), Tamminga, G.F. (author), Ledoux, H. (author), Stoter, J.E. (author)
CityGML, an OGC standard, is an open data model for virtual 3D city models and includes buildings, roads, terrain, water bodies, etc. While many modules are well-developed (eg buildings, bridges, tunnels), the transportation model is, based on our consultations with various government agencies and municipalities, not sufficient for most...
conference paper 2018
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Zhao, Junqiao (author), Ledoux, H. (author), Stoter, J.E. (author), Feng, Tiantian (author)
The Level-of-Detail (LOD) 2 building models defined in CityGML are used widely in three-dimensional (3D) city applications. Many of these applications demand valid solid-based geometry (closed 2-manifold), which is crucial for analytical and computational purposes. However, this condition is often violated in practice because of the way LOD2...
journal article 2018
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Vitalis, S. (author), Arroyo Ohori, G.A.K. (author), Stoter, J.E. (author)
3D city models are becoming increasingly important for applications such as evacuation scenarios and energy consumption estimation. For these applications embedding semantic information on geometry is a key factor. The most popular implementation of modern 3D city models is based on the CityGML data model which describes spatial 3D data using a...
conference paper 2018
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Biljecki, F. (author), Ledoux, H. (author), Stoter, J.E. (author)
Elevation datasets (e.g. point clouds) are an essential but often unavailable ingredient for the construction of 3D city models. We investigate in this paper to what extent can 3D city models be generated solely from 2D data without elevation measurements. We show that it is possible to predict the height of buildings from 2D data (their...
journal article 2017
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Kavisha, K. (author), Ledoux, H. (author), Commandeur, T.J.F. (author), Stoter, J.E. (author)
Road traffic and industrial noise has become a major source of discomfort and annoyance among the residents in urban areas. More than 44 % of the EU population is regularly exposed to road traffic noise levels over 55 dB, which is currently the maximum accepted value prescribed by the Environmental Noise Directive for road traffic...
conference paper 2017
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Labetski, A. (author), Ledoux, H. (author), Stoter, J.E. (author)
The increasing popularity of 3D city models in navigation, urban planning, etc.,
necessitates application-specific and geometrically accurate and valid models. The concept of Levels of Detail (LoDs) indicate a model’s scale of adherence to its real-world counterpart. Highly detailed datasets often contain errors or require an exorbitant...
conference paper 2017
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Biljecki, F. (author), Ledoux, H. (author), Du, X. (author), Stoter, J.E. (author), Soon, Kean Huat (author), Khoo, Victor (author)
To be used as input in most simulation and modelling software, 3D city models should be geometrically and topologically valid, and semantically rich. We investigate in this paper what is the quality of currently available CityGML datasets, i.e. we validate the geometry/topology of the 3D primitives (Solid and MultiSurface), and we validate...
conference paper 2016
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Biljecki, F. (author), Ledoux, H. (author), Stoter, J.E. (author)
The production and dissemination of semantic 3D city models is rapidly increasing benefiting a growing number of use cases. However, their availability in multiple LODs and in the CityGML format is still problematic in practice. This hinders applications and experiments where multi-LOD datasets are required as input, for instance, to determine...
conference paper 2016
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Biljecki, F. (author), Ledoux, H. (author), Stoter, J.E. (author), Vosselman, G (author)
The level of detail (LOD) of a 3D city model indicates the model's grade and usability. However, there exist multiple valid variants of each LOD. As a consequence, the LOD concept is inconclusive as an instruction for the acquisition of 3D city models. For instance, the top surface of an LOD1 block model may be modelled at the eaves of a...
journal article 2016
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Kavisha, K. (author), Ledoux, H. (author), Stoter, J.E. (author)
In addition to buildings, the terrain forms an important part of a 3D city model. Although in GIS terrains are usually represented with 2D grids, TINs are also increasingly being used in practice. One example is 3DTOP10NL, the 3D city model covering the whole of the Netherlands, which stores the relief with a constrained TIN containing more than...
conference paper 2016
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Ates Aydar, S. (author), Stoter, J.E. (author), Ledoux, H. (author), Demir Ozbek, E. (author), Yomraliogly, T (author)
This paper presents the generation of the 3D national building geo-data model of Turkey, which is compatible with the international OGC CityGML Encoding Standard. We prepare an ADE named CityGML-TRKBIS.BI that is produced by extending existing thematic modules of CityGML according to TRKBIS needs. All thematic data groups in TRKBIS geo-data...
conference paper 2016
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Biljecki, F. (author), Stoter, J.E. (author), Ledoux, H. (author), Zlatanova, S. (author), Coltekin, A. (author)
In the last decades, 3D city models appear to have been predominantly used for visualisation; however, today they are being increasingly employed in a number of domains and for a large range of tasks beyond visualisation. In this paper, we seek to understand and document the state of the art regarding the utilisation of 3D city models across...
journal article 2015
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Biljecki, F. (author), Ledoux, H. (author), Stoter, J.E. (author)
The CityGML standard enables the modelling of some topological relationships, and the representation in multiple levels of detail (LODs). However, both concepts are rarely utilised in reality. In this paper we investigate the linking of corresponding geometric features across multiple representations. We describe the possible topological cases,...
conference paper 2014
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Biljecki, F. (author), Ledoux, H. (author), Stoter, J.E. (author)
The geometry of the LOD1 block model of CityGML may be represented in a multitude of valid variants, e.g. it may represent individual buildings or aggregated blocks. The geometric representations within each of these, such as the reference of the footprint of a building, are not standardised in CityGML and are not informed in the metadata. The...
conference paper 2014
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Biljecki, F. (author), Ledoux, H. (author), Stoter, J. (author)
This paper describes the analysis of the propagation of positional uncertainty in 3D city models to the uncertainty in the computation of their volumes. Current work related to error propagation in GIS is limited to 2D data and 2D GIS operations, especially of rasters. In this research we have (1) developed two engines, one that generates random...
conference paper 2014
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Biljecki, F. (author), Ledoux, H. (author), Stoter, J.E. (author), Zhao, J. (author)
The level of detail in 3D city modelling, despite its usefulness and importance, is still an ambiguous and undefined term. It is used for the communication of how thoroughly real-world features have been acquired and modelled, as we demonstrate in this paper. Its definitions vary greatly between practitioners, standards and institutions. We...
journal article 2014
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Stoter, J.E. (author), Streilein, A. (author), Pla, M. (author), Baella, B. (author), Capstick, D. (author), Home, R. (author), Roensdorf, C. (author), Lagrange, J.P. (author)
Over the past ten years technologies for generating, maintaining and using 3D geo-information have matured. For national mapping agencies one of the challenges is how to best extend 2D data into 3D data, making best use of research results and available technologies. Some mapping organisations are making serious progress. The question addressed...
conference paper 2013
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