Searched for: department%3A%22Microelectronics%22
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Campos de Oliveira, A. (author), Groenesteijn, Jarno (author), Wiegerink, Remco J. (author), Makinwa, K.A.A. (author)
Precision flow sensors are widely used in the pharmaceutical, food, and semiconductor industries to measure small amounts (<1 gram/hour) of liquids and gases. MEMS thermal flow sensors currently achieve state-of-the-art performance in terms of resolution, size, and power consumption [1, 3]. However, they only measure volumetric flow, and...
conference paper 2021
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Rooijers, C.T. (author), Karmakar, S. (author), Kusuda, Yoshinori (author), Huijsing, J.H. (author), Makinwa, K.A.A. (author)
Amplifiers often employ chopping to achieve low offset and low-frequency noise. However, the interaction between the input signal and the chopper clock can cause chopper-induced intermodulation distortion (IMD) [1] -[5]. This is especially problematic for input frequencies (Fin) near even multiples of the chopping frequency (FCH), as the...
conference paper 2021
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Pan, S. (author), Angevare, J. (author), Makinwa, K.A.A. (author)
Resistor-based temperature sensors can achieve higher resolution and energy-efficiency than traditional BJT-based sensors. To reach similar accuracy, however, they typically require 2-point (2-pt) calibration, compared to the low-cost 1-pt calibration required by BJT-based sensors. This paper presents a hybrid temperature sensor that uses an...
conference paper 2021
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Jiang, H. (author), Pan, S. (author), Gürleyük, C. (author), Makinwa, K.A.A. (author)
Recently, rapid strides have been made in improving the accuracy of RC-based frequency references [1 -3]. Inaccuracies better than \pm 500ppm from -45^{\circ}C to 85^{\circ}C have been achieved, but typically at the expense of a costly and time-consuming 2-point trim to compensate for RC spread and temperature dependence. This paper describes...
conference paper 2021
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Choi, Woojun (author), Angevare, J. (author), Park, Injun (author), Makinwa, K.A.A. (author), Chae, Youngcheol (author)
Wireless sensor nodes in battery-powered internet-of-things (loT) applications require a stable on-chip frequency reference with low energy (<10 pJ / cycle) and high frequency stability (below ±300ppm). CMOS RC frequency references are promising due to their low-cost integration and high energy efficiency [1] –[5]. Conventional RC references,...
conference paper 2021
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Angevare, J. (author), Chae, Youngcheol (author), Makinwa, K.A.A. (author)
Microprocessors and SoCs employ multiple temperature sensors to prevent overheating and ensure reliable operation. Such sensors should be small (<10,000μm2) to monitor local hot-spots in dense layouts. They should also be moderately accurate (1°C) up to high temperatures (≥125°C), so that the system throttling temperature can be set as...
conference paper 2021
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Rooijers, C.T. (author), Karmakar, S. (author), Kusuda, Y. (author), Huijsing, J.H. (author), Makinwa, K.A.A. (author)
In chopper amplifiers, the interaction between the input signal and the chopper clock can give rise to intermodulation distortion (IMD). This chopper-induced IMD is mainly due to amplifier delay, which causes large pulses at the output of the amplifier's output chopper. This article proposes the use of a so-called fill-in technique to eliminate...
journal article 2021
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Pan, S. (author), Angevare, J. (author), Makinwa, K.A.A. (author)
This article describes a hybrid temperature sensor in which an accurate, but energy-inefficient, thermal diffusivity (TD) sensor is used to calibrate an inaccurate, but efficient, resistor-based sensor. The latter is based on silicided polysilicon resistors embedded in a Wien-bridge (WB) filter, while the former is based on an electrothermal...
journal article 2021
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Jouyaeian, A. (author), Fan, Q. (author), Motz, Mario (author), Ausserlechner, Udo (author), Makinwa, K.A.A. (author)
Magnetic current sensors are used in switched-mode power supplies and motor drivers, where both galvanic isolation and wide bandwidth (BW) are desired. In CMOS, Hall-effect sensors are widely used, but their resistance results in a fundamental trade-off between BW and resolution. Coils have a differentiating characteristic and so can achieve...
conference paper 2021
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Zhang, H. (author), Berkhout, M. (author), Makinwa, K.A.A. (author), Fan, Q. (author)
This paper reports a Class-D audio amplifier that uses multiloop feedback to suppress output LC filter nonlinearity by 49 dB, enabling the use of small, low-cost LC filters with ±30% spread while maintaining low distortion. Fabricated in a 180 nm BCD process, the prototype achieves a THD of-121.5 dB and a THD+N of-107.1 dB. It delivers 12W...
conference paper 2021
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Eland, E.N. (author), Karmakar, S. (author), Gonen, B. (author), van Veldhoven, Robert (author), Makinwa, K.A.A. (author)
This article describes a discrete-time zoom analog-to-digital converter (ADC) intended for audio applications. It uses a coarse 5-bit SAR ADC in tandem with a fine third-order delta-sigma modulator (ΔΣM) to efficiently obtain a high dynamic range. To minimize its over-sampling ratio (OSR) and, thus, its digital power consumption, the...
journal article 2021
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Pimenta, Matheus (author), Gürleyük, C. (author), Walsh, Paul (author), O’Keeffe, Daniel (author), Babaie, M. (author), Makinwa, K.A.A. (author)
This article presents a low-power eddy-current sensor interface for touch applications. It is based on a bang-bang digital phase-locked loop (DPLL) that converts the displacement of a metal target into digital information. The PLL consists of a digitally controlled oscillator (DCO) built around a sensing coil and a capacitive DAC, a...
journal article 2021
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Yousefzadeh, B. (author), Makinwa, K.A.A. (author)
This article presents a BJT-based temperature-to-digital-converter (TDC) that achieves ±0.25 °C 3 sigma -inaccuracy from -40 °C to +180 °C after a heater-assisted voltage calibration (HA-VCAL). Its switched-capacitor (SC) ADC employs two sampling capacitors and, thus, the minimum number of critical sampling switches, which minimizes the...
journal article 2020
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Karmakar, S. (author), Zhang, H. (author), van Veldhoven, Robert (author), Breems, Lucien J. (author), Berkhout, M. (author), Fan, Q. (author), Makinwa, K.A.A. (author)
This article presents a 28-W class-D amplifier for automotive applications. The combination of a high switching frequency and a hybrid multibit Δ Σ M-PWM scheme results in high linearity over a wide range of output power, as well as low AM-band EMI. As a result, only a small (150-kHz cutoff frequency), and thus low-cost, LC filter is needed...
journal article 2020
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Pan, S. (author), Makinwa, K.A.A. (author)
This article describes a highly energy-efficient Wheatstone bridge temperature sensor. To maximize sensitivity, the bridge is made from resistors with positive (silicided diffusion) and negative (poly) temperature coefficients. The bridge is balanced by a resistive (poly) FIR-DAC, which is part of a 2nd-order continuous-time delta-sigma...
journal article 2020
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Zhang, H. (author), Karmakar, S. (author), Breems, Lucien J. (author), Sandifort, Quino (author), Berkhout, Marco (author), Makinwa, K.A.A. (author), Fan, Q. (author)
This article presents a Class-D audio amplifier for automotive applications. Low electromagnetic interference (EMI) and, hence, smaller LC filter size are obtained by employing a fully differential multilevel output stage switching at 4.2 MHz. A modulation scheme with minimal switching activity at zero input reduces idle power, which is...
journal article 2020
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Gonen, B. (author), Karmakar, S. (author), van Veldhoven, Robert (author), Makinwa, K.A.A. (author)
This article presents a continuous-Time zoom analog to digital converter (ADC) for audio applications. It employs a high-speed asynchronous SAR ADC that dynamically updates the references of a continuous-Time delta-sigma modulator (CTDSM). Compared to previous switched-capacitor (SC) zoom ADCs, its input impedance is essentially resistive,...
journal article 2020
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Pan, S. (author), Makinwa, K.A.A. (author)
Energy efficiency and accuracy are important specifications of CMOS temperature sensors. BJT -based sensors achieve state-of-the-art accuracy [1], while Wheatstone-bridge (WhB) sensors achieve lower accuracy but state-of-the-art energy efficiency [2], [3]. This paper presents a WhB sensor that is read out by an energy-efficient continuous...
conference paper 2020
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Zhang, H. (author), Karmakar, S. (author), Breems, Lucien (author), Sandifort, Quino (author), Berkhout, M. (author), Makinwa, K.A.A. (author), Fan, Q. (author)
This paper describes a class-D audio amplifier with a multilevel output stage that reduces both EMI and idle power. High loop gain, and thus high linearity, are enabled by a relatively high (4.2 MHz) switching frequency, which relaxes the requirements on its output LC filter. Fabricated in a 180nm BCD technology, it can drive 14 W into an 8-Ω...
conference paper 2020
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Pan, S. (author), Makinwa, K.A.A. (author)
This letter presents a compact, energy-efficient, and low-power Wheatstone-bridge temperature sensor for biomedical applications. To maximize sensitivity and reduce power dissipation, the sensor employs a high-resistance (600 kΩ ) bridge that consists of resistors with positive (silicided-poly) and negative ( n -poly) temperature coefficients...
journal article 2020
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