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departmentresearch group programmeprojectcoordinates)uuid:8812a115ba644970b6bae124f2dc2a7eDhttp://resolver.tudelft.nl/uuid:8812a115ba644970b6bae124f2dc2a7eEParticle filter for aircraft mass estimation and uncertainty modelingSun, J. (TU Delft Control & Simulation); Blom, H.A.P. (TU Delft Aerospace Transport & Operations; National Aerospace Laboratory  Netherlands); Ellerbroek, J. (TU Delft Control & Simulation); Hoekstra, J.M. (TU Delft Control & Operations)This article investigates the estimation of aircraft mass and thrust settings of departing aircraft using a recursive Bayesian method called particle filtering. The method is based on a nonlinear statespace system derived from aircraft pointmass performance models. Using only aircraft surveillance data, flight states such as position, velocity, wind speed, and air temperature are collected and used for the estimations. With the regularized Sample Importance Resampling particle filter, we are able to estimate the aircraft mass within 30 seconds once an aircraft is airborne. Using this short flight segment allows the assumption of constant mass and thrust setting. The segment at the start of the climb also represents the time when maximum thrust setting is most likely to occur. This study emphasizes an important aspect of the estimation problem, the observation noise modeling. Four observation noise models are proposed, which are all based on the native navigation accuracy parameters that have been obtained automatically from the surveillance data. Simulations and experiments are conducted to test the theoretical model. The results show that the particle filter is able to quantify uncertainties, as well as determine the noise limit for an accurate estimation. The method of this study is tested with a dataset consisting of 50 Cessna Citation II flights where true masses were recorded.eAircraft; Bayesian estimation; Observation noise; Particle filter; Pointmass model; State estimationenjournal articleEGreen Open Access added to TU Delft Institutional Repository You share, we take care! Taverne project https://www.openaccess.nl/en/yousharewetakecare Otherwise as indicated in the copyright section: the publisher is the copyright holder of this work and the author uses the Dutch legislation to make this work public.
20191201)uuid:af94d53518534a6c8b3f77c98a52346aDhttp://resolver.tudelft.nl/uuid:af94d53518534a6c8b3f77c98a52346aVOpen Aircraft Performance Modeling: Based on an Analysis of Aircraft Surveillance Data'Sun, J. (TU Delft Control & Simulation)tHoekstra, J.M. (promotor); Ellerbroek, J. (copromotor); Delft University of Technology (degree granting institution)
A large number of stakeholders exist in the modern air traffic management ecosystem. Air transportation studies benefit from collaboration and the sharing of knowledge and findings between these different players. However, not all parties have equal access to information. Due to the lack of opensource tools and models, it is not always possible to undertake comparative studies and to repeat experiments. The barriers to accessing proprietary tools and models create major limitations in the field of air traffic management research. This dissertation investigates the methods necessary to construct an aircraft performance model based on open data, which can be used freely and redistributed without restrictions. The primary data source presented in this dissertation is aircraft surveillance data that can be intercepted openly with little to no restriction in most regions of the world. The eleven chapters in this dissertation follow the sequence of open data, open models, and performance estimations. This order corresponds to the three main parts of the dissertation. In the first part of the dissertation, open surveillance data is explored. Methods are developed t< o decode and process this data. Extraction of information is also made possible thanks to machine learning algorithms. The second part of the dissertation examines the main components of the open aircraft performance model. Models related to kinematics, thrust, drag polar, fuel flow, and weather are investigated. The third part of the dissertation looks into the possibility of using surveillance data to estimate aircraft performance parameters, for example, aircraft turn performance, aircraft mass, and thrust settings, for individual flights. With the goal of making future air traffic management studies more transparent, comparable, and reproducible, the models and tools proposed in this dissertation are fully open. The final aircraft performance model, OpenAP, proposed in this dissertation has proven to be an efficient open alternative to current closedsource models.Aircraft Performance; Air Traffic Management; ADSB; Drag Polar; Dynamic Model; Engine Fuel Flow; Kinematic Model; MeteoParticle; ModeS; Open Data; State Estimation; Thrustdoctoral thesis9789463840309
20190614)uuid:46eca6fd93dd450ea52d6bc220a42741Dhttp://resolver.tudelft.nl/uuid:46eca6fd93dd450ea52d6bc220a42741rAnalytical solution of a massspring system containing shape memory alloys: Effects of nonlinearity and hysteresisZhuo, M. (TU Delft Applied Mechanics; The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology); Xia, Minglu (The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology); Sun, Qingping (The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology)INonlinear dynamics of vibration systems containing NiTi shape memory alloy (SMA) bars has long been obscured by the lack of an analytical solution, like the analytical solution for duffing equation. The problem results from the nonlinear and hysteretic restoring force of the SMA bar. Here we use a piecewise linear hysteretic model to describe the forcedisplacement relation of the SMA bar and use the averaging method to solve the equation of motion. We thus obtain an approximate analytical solution of the steadystate response of an SMA massspring system. The analytical solution can describe both stable and unstable behaviors of the vibration system and therefore offer a comprehensive understanding of the nonlinear responses. It is shown that the phase transition induced softening nonlinearity bends the frequency response curve (FRC) to the left, while the subsequent rehardening of martensite further bends the FRC to the right, leading to multivalued regions and jump phenomena. The hysteresis is found to have little influence on the bending but it can significantly suppress the response amplitude. Comparison of the analytical results with experimental data validates the piecewise linear hysteretic model and the analytical solutions. This work provides a theoretical tool for design and vibration control of SMA massspring systems.Hysteresis; Massspring system; NiTi shape memory alloy; Nonlinear vibration; Phase transition; Piecewise linear hysteretic modelAccepted Author Manuscript
20210528)uuid:ea44a0be9eeb4912903ff99f3f47cf42Dhttp://resolver.tudelft.nl/uuid:ea44a0be9eeb4912903ff99f3f47cf42LongTerm Cumulative Effects of IntraAnnual Variability of Unsteady River Discharge on the Progradation of Delta Lobes: A Modeling PerspectiveGao, Weilun (Beijing Normal University); Shao, Dongdong (Beijing Normal University); Wang, Zhengbing (TU Delft Coastal Engineering; Beijing Normal University); Nardin, William (University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science); Rajput, Prateek (Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur); Yang, Wei (Beijing Normal University); Sun, Tao (Beijing Normal University); Cui, Baoshan (Beijing Normal University)Rivers, regardless of their scales and geographic locations, are characterized with natural and humaninduced variability in their discharges. While previous studies have established the effects of both interannual and intraannual variabilities of unsteady river discharge on delta morphological evolution, the longterm cumulative effects of intraannual unstead< iness on the progradation of delta lobes has remained hitherto elusive. To address this issue, numerical experiments using simplified unsteady discharges were performed in Delft3D and compared with those assuming constant bankfull discharges. A modified box model was further used to explore the effects of varying intraannual unsteadiness on the progradation of delta lobes at reduced computational cost. While the overall trends of the progradation and the ultimate area created were found to be similar between the unsteady discharge scenarios and their corresponding constant bankfull discharge scenarios, the nuances of intermittent zigzag variation in natural delta lobe area were well reproduced by model simulations assuming unsteady river discharges. In addition, longterm predictions suggested the potential existence of a tipping point in the area growth trajectory beyond which the delta lobe area declines during periods of low discharge. When confounding factors such as waves and variable sediment capture ratio were further taken into consideration, simulation results for unsteady river discharge scenarios exhibit significant deviations from constant bankfull discharge scenarios. The implications of the modeling results for delta protection and restoration measures, such as the watersediment regulation scheme in the Yellow River and artificial channel diversions in the Mississippi River Delta, are also discussed.Sdelta progradation; delta restoration; numerical modeling; unsteady river discharge)uuid:84afd7743c4f49a5a52e6eb0532f322eDhttp://resolver.tudelft.nl/uuid:84afd7743c4f49a5a52e6eb0532f322e9WRAP: An opensource kinematic aircraft performance modelSun, J. (TU Delft Control & Simulation); Ellerbroek, J. (TU Delft Control & Simulation); Hoekstra, J.M. (TU Delft Control & Simulation)Open access to flight data from Automatic Dependent SurveillanceBroadcast (ADSB) has provided researchers with more insights for air traffic management than aircraft tracking alone. With large quantities of trajectory data collected from a wide range of different aircraft types, it is possible to extract accurate aircraft performance parameters. In this paper, a set of more than thirty parameters from seven distinct flight phases are extracted for common commercial aircraft types. It uses various data mining methods, as well as a maximum likelihood estimation approach to generate parametric models for these performance parameters. All parametric models combined can be used to describe a complete flight that includes takeoff, initial climb, climb, cruise, descent, final approach, and landing. Both analytical results and summaries are shown. When available, optimal parameters from these models are also compared with the Base of Aircraft Data and the Eurocontrol aircraft performance database. This research presents a comprehensive set of methods for extracting different aircraft performance parameters. It also provides the first set of open parametric performance data for common aircraft types. All model data are published as open data under a flexible opensource license.IADSB; Aircraft performance; Data analytics; Data mining; Kinematic model
20190601)uuid:76847a92d4074a8eb26d4660282134a5Dhttp://resolver.tudelft.nl/uuid:76847a92d4074a8eb26d4660282134a53A Reliability Prediction Methodology for LED ArraysSun, B. (Guangdong University of Technology); Fan, J. (Hohai University); Fan, Xuejun (Lamar University); Zhang, Kouchi (TU Delft Electronic Components, Technology and Materials); Zhang, Guohao (Guangdong University of Technology)nIn this paper, a physics of failurebased prediction method is combined with statistical models to consider the impact of current crowding and current droop effects on the reliability of LED arrays. Electronicthermal models of LEDs are utilized to obtain the operation conditions under the influences of current crowding and current droop. A Markov chainbased model is used to calculate the probability distribution of each failure mode, including the lumen decay and catastrophic failure. Two type< s of LEDs were selected for a numerical study. The proposed prediction method provides the realistic reliability prediction results. It is found that the properties of LEDs have a great impact on their hazard rates of LED arrays. The equivalent resistance, thirdorder nonradiative coefficient, and radiative coefficient of LEDs are critical to the reliability of an LED array._Catastrophic failure; electronicthermal model; LED array; Markov chain; reliability prediction)uuid:7af4bfb6ed834ff0bcb0b0820c479347Dhttp://resolver.tudelft.nl/uuid:7af4bfb6ed834ff0bcb0b0820c479347Visualized study of thermochemistry assisted steam flooding to improve oil recovery in heavy oil reservoir with glass micromodelsLyu, X. (TU Delft Petroleum Engineering; China University of Petroleum  Beijing); Liu, Huiqing (China University of Petroleum  Beijing); Pang, Zhanxi (China University of Petroleum  Beijing); Sun, Zhixue (China University of Petroleum (East China))Steam channeling, one serious problem in the process of steam flooding in heavy oil reservoir, decreases the sweep efficiency of steam to cause a lower oil recovery. Viscosity reducer and nitrogen foam, two effective methods to improve oil recovery with different mechanism, present a satisfactory result after steam flooding. In this article, a 2D visualized device was introduced to investigate the synergistic development effect of two different chemical additives and intuitively study their flowing characteristic in porous media, as well as macroscopic and microscopic mechanism of improving heavy oil recovery by chemical additives after steam flooding. The results showed that the fingering phenomenon was generated obviously in the process of steam flooding, which restricted the swept area of steam. Due to decreasing oilwater interface tension, O/W emulsion with lower viscosity was formed to enhance the oil flow capacity and polish up the displacement efficiency of steam after injecting viscosity reducer. And the synergistic effect of viscosity reducer & foaming agent was more conductive to improve displacement efficiency of steam, with 4.3% of oil recovery higher than purely viscosity reducer assisting steam flooding in this process. Microscopic results indicated that thermal foams can be trapped in the porous media to improve injection profile effectively and displace the residual oil caused by steam flooding. The ultimate oil recovery of synergistic development is 65.6%, 11.0% higher than one additive (viscosity reducer). This article can provide reference for the study of thermochemistry assisted steam flooding in heavy oil reservoir.2D visualized physical model; Microscopic mechanism analysis; Physical simulation; Steam flooding; Synergistic development; Thermochemistry
20200130Petroleum Engineering)uuid:2b02d90b9c3349af82bbd32fd4061919Dhttp://resolver.tudelft.nl/uuid:2b02d90b9c3349af82bbd32fd4061919CAircraft Mass and Thrust Estimation Using Recursive Bayesian MethodSun, J. (TU Delft Control & Simulation); Blom, H.A.P. (TU Delft Aerospace Transport & Operations; NLR  Netherlands Aerospace Centre); Ellerbroek, J. (TU Delft Control & Simulation); Hoekstra, J.M. (TU Delft Control & Simulation)}This paper focuses on estimating aircraft mass and thrust setting using a recursive Bayesian method called particle filtering. The method is based on a nonlinear statespace system derived from aircraft pointmass performance models. Using solely ADSB and ModeS data, flight states such as position, velocity, and wind speed are collected and used for the estimation. An important aspect of particle filtering is noise modeling. Four noise models are proposed in this paper based on the native ADSB Navigation Accuracy Category (NAC) parameters. Simulations, experiments, and validation, based on a number of flights are carried out to test the theory. As a result, convergence of the estimation can usually be obtained within 30 seconds for any climbing flight. The method proposed in this paper not only provides final estimates, but also defines the limits of noise above which< estimation of mass and thrust becomes impossible. When validated with a dataset consisting of the measured true mass and thrust of 50 Cessna Citation II flights, the stochastic recursive Bayesian approach proposed in this paper yields a mean absolute error of 4.6%.eaircraft; state estimation; pointmass model; measurement noise; particle filter; Bayesian estimationconference paperControl & Simulation)uuid:1deee01af377443aaa7ad1eea632fe8aDhttp://resolver.tudelft.nl/uuid:1deee01af377443aaa7ad1eea632fe8aIntegrating the MultiFunctional Space and LongSpan Structure for Sports Arena Design: A design exploration process based on design optimization and selforganizing mapPan, W. (TU Delft Design Informatics; South China University of Technology); Sun, Yimin (South China University of Technology); Turrin, M. (TU Delft Design Informatics); Louter, C. (TU Delft OLD Structural Design); Sariyildiz, I.S. (TU Delft Design Informatics)8Mueller, Caitlin (editor); Adriaenssens, Sigrid (editor)The multifunctional space of sports arena is highly related to the longspan structure. To support the integration of these two aspects, design optimization combining parametric modeling, performance simulations, and searching algorithm can be used. However, optimization is powerful in dealing with quantitative performance, but for some soft requirements on buildings, design exploration of geometries based on the judgments of architects is still necessary. Selforganizing map (SOM), as a modelbased clustering algorithm, can be used to support this kind of explorations on geometric typology. Nevertheless, it is difficult to ensure the accuracy of clustering, especially for complex parametric models. To support the design exploration on geometry (besides the exploration on quantitative performance supported by optimization) during the conceptual design of sports arenas, this paper proposed a process based on a versatile and flexible parametric model for sports arenas and selforganizing map (SOM). Within this process, to increase the accuracy of SOM clustering, a preprocessing step for the parameters of design alternatives is also proposed. A design of a hypothetic sports arena is used as a case to demonstrate and verify the process.design exploration; selforganizing map (SOM); clustering; parametric modeling; multiobjective optimization (MOO); multifunctional space of sports arenas; longspan structureIASSDesign Informatics)uuid:467a07843d304f4c939e4e324c29f918Dhttp://resolver.tudelft.nl/uuid:467a07843d304f4c939e4e324c29f9189Epidemic dynamics on informationdriven adaptive networksZhan, X. (TU Delft Multimedia Computing; Hangzhou Normal University); Liu, Chuang (Hangzhou Normal University); Sun, GuiQuan (Shanxi University); Zhang, ZiKe (Hangzhou Normal University; Shanghai Jiao Tong University; Alibaba Research Institute)YResearch on the interplay between the dynamics on the network and the dynamics of the network has attracted much attention in recent years. In this work, we propose an informationdriven adaptive model, where disease and disease information can evolve simultaneously. For the informationdriven adaptive process, susceptible (infected) individuals who have abilities to recognize the disease would break the links of their infected (susceptible) neighbors to prevent the epidemic from further spreading. Simulation results and numerical analyses based on the pairwise approach indicate that the informationdriven adaptive process can not only slow down the speed of epidemic spreading, but can also diminish the epidemic prevalence at the final state significantly. In addition, the disease spreading and information diffusion pattern on the lattice as well as on a realworld network give visual representations about how the disease is trapped into an isolated field with the informationdriven adaptive process. Furthermore, we perform the local bifurcation analysis on four types of dynamical regions, including healthy, a continuous dynamic behavior, bistable and endemic, to understand the evolution of the observed < dynamical behaviors. This work may shed some lights on understanding how information affects human activities on responding to epidemic spreading.OAdaptive model; Bifurcation analysis; Epidemic spreading; Information diffusionAccepted author manuscript
20200216Multimedia Computing)uuid:85499897c951471cbd74c1d82b4036e1Dhttp://resolver.tudelft.nl/uuid:85499897c951471cbd74c1d82b4036e1YA benchmark study of numerical implementations of the sea level equation in GIA modelling5Martinec, Z. (Charles University; Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies); Klemann, V. (Helmholtz Centre Potsdam  GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences); van der Wal, W. (TU Delft Astrodynamics & Space Missions); Riva, R.E.M. (TU Delft Physical and Space Geodesy); Spada, G. (Universit di Urbino Carlo Bo, Urbino); Sun, Y. (TU Delft Physical and Space Geodesy); Melini, D. (National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology); Kachuck, S. B. (Cornell University); Barletta, V. (Technical University of Denmark); Simon, K.M. (TU Delft Physical and Space Geodesy)The ocean load in glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) modelling is represented by the socalled sea level equation (SLE). The SLE describes the mass redistribution of water between ice sheets and oceans on a deforming Earth. Despite various teams independently investigating GIA, there has been no systematic intercomparison among the numerical solvers of the SLE through which the methods may be validated. The goal of this paper is to present a series of synthetic examples designed for testing and comparing the numerical implementations of the SLE in GIA modelling. The 10 numerical codes tested combine various temporal and spatial parametrizations. The timedomain or Laplacedomain discretizations are used to solve the SLE through time, while spherical harmonics, finite differences or finite elements parametrize the GIArelated field variables spatially. The surface icewater load and solid Earth's topography are represented spatially either on an equiangular grid, a GaussLegendre or an equiarea grid with icosahedronshaped spherical pixels. Comparisons aremade in a series of five benchmark examples with an increasing degree of complexity. Due to the complexity of the SLE, there is no analytical solution to it. The accuracy of the numerical implementations is therefore assessed by the differences of the individual solutions with respect to a reference solution. While the benchmark study does not result in GIA predictions for a realistic loading scenario, we establish a set of agreedupon results that can be extended in the future by including more complex case studies, such as solutions with realistic loading scenarios, the rotational feedback in the linearmomentum equation, and by considering a 3D viscosity structure of the Earth's mantle. The test computations performed so far show very good agreement between the individual results and their ability to capture the main features of seasurface variation and the surface vertical displacement. The differences found can often be attributed to the different approximations inherent in the various algorithms. This shows the accuracy that can be expected from different implementations of the SLE, which helps to assess differences noted in the literature between predictions for realistic loading cases.And modelling; Dynamics of lithosphere and mantle; Dynamics: gravity and tectonics; Mechanics; Numerical solutions; Rheology: mantle; Sea level change; TheoryAstrodynamics & Space Missions)uuid:e941d5e3f21342f6b99718a824518e57Dhttp://resolver.tudelft.nl/uuid:e941d5e3f21342f6b99718a824518e57[A probabilistic physicsoffailure reliability assessment approach for integrated LED lampsSun, B. (Guangdong University of Technology); Fan, J. (Hohai University); Fan, Xuejun (Lamar University); Zhang, G.Q. (TU Delft Electronic Components, Technology and Materials)This work studies the effect of randomness of LED's lumen depreciation on reliability of the entire LED lamp. An integrated LED light bulb is selected as carrier of the proposed method. A PoF ba< sed lumen depreciation model and electronicthermal simulations are introduced for reliability prediction. The normal distribution is used to describe the statistical distribution of LEDs. The probabilities of the driver's catastrophic failures and lumen can then be obtained by Monte Carlo simulations by considering the increase of lamp's temperature. The effect of the lumen depreciation to the entire lamp is studied with two scenarios: constant light mode and constant current mode.gReliability; Junctions; LED lamps; Light sources; Temperature distribution; Integrated circuit modelingIEEE/Electronic Components, Technology and Materials)uuid:cf180450cf6645329c0dff64159b0901Dhttp://resolver.tudelft.nl/uuid:cf180450cf6645329c0dff64159b0901_Groundbased Wind Field Construction from ModeS and ADSB Data with a Novel Gas Particle ModelSun, J. (TU Delft Control & Simulation); V, Huy; Ellerbroek, J. (TU Delft Control & Simulation); Hoekstra, J.M. (TU Delft Control & Simulation)jWind is an important parameter in many air traffic management researches, as it often introduces significant uncertainties in aircraft performance studies and trajectory predictions. Obtaining accurate wind field information has always been a challenge due to the availability of weather sensors. Traditionally, there is no direct method to measure wind data at different altitudes with the exception of weather balloon systems that cannot be easily scaled. On the other hand, aircraft, which rely heavily on atmospheric data, can be part of atmospheric model itself. Aircraft can provide wind and temperature measurements to ground observers. In this paper, aircraft are considered as a moving sensor network established to reconstruct the wind field on a larger scale. Based on the powerful opensource tool pyModeS, aircraft ground velocity and airspeed are decoded from ADSB and ModeS data respectively. Wind observations are then derived based on the difference of these two vectors. An innovative gas particle model is also developed so that the complete wind field can be constructed continuously based on these observations. The model can generate wind field in realtime and at all flight levels. Furthermore, the confidence of wind at any 4D position can be computed according to the proposed model method. Multiple selfand crossvalidations are conducted to ensure the correctness and stability of the model, as well as the resulting wind field. This paper provides a series of novel methods, as well as opensource tools, that enable the research community using simple ADSB/ModeS receivers to construct accurate wind fields.[ADSB; ModeS; aviation weather; wind modeling; aircraft sensor network; gas particle model)uuid:d7c060833b1c4d3fa2098984569c4a46Dhttp://resolver.tudelft.nl/uuid:d7c060833b1c4d3fa2098984569c4a46Impacts of problem scale and sampling strategy on surrogate model accuracy: An application of surrogatebased optimization in building design*Yang, D. (TU Delft Design Informatics; South China University of Technology); Sun, Y (South China University of Technology); Di Stefano, D. (ESTECO SpA); Turrin, M. (TU Delft Design Informatics; South China University of Technology); Sariyildiz, I.S. (TU Delft Design Informatics; Yasar University)qSurrogatebased Optimization is a useful approach when the objective function is computationally expensive to evaluate, compared to Simulationbased Optimization. In the surrogatebased method, analytically tractable surrogate models (also known as Response Surface Models RSMs or metamodels ), are constructed and validated for each optimization objective and constraint at relatively low computational cost. They are useful for replacing the timeconsuming simulations during the optimization; quickly locating the area where the optimum is expected to be for further search; and gaining insight into the global behavior of the system. Nevertheless, there are still concerns about the surrogate model accuracy and the number of simulations necessary to get a reasonably accurate surrogate model. This paper aims< to unveil: 1) the possible impacts of problem scale and sampling strategy on the surrogate model accuracy; and 2) the potential of Surrogatebased Optimization in finding high quality solutions for building envelope design optimization problems. For this purpose, a series of multiobjective optimization test cases that mainly consider daylight and energy performance were conducted within the same time frame. Then, the results were compared, in pair, based on which discussions were made. Finally, the corresponding conclusions were obtained after the comparative study.multiobjective optimization; surrogatebased optimization; problem scale; sampling strategy; response surface model; design of experiments)uuid:e3003c8a2b614bd8be6a38cb739a0970Dhttp://resolver.tudelft.nl/uuid:e3003c8a2b614bd8be6a38cb739a0970tDesign and performance evaluation of a simplified dynamic model for combined sewer overflows in pumped sewer systemsvan DaalRombouts, P.M.M. (TU Delft Sanitary Engineering); Sun, Siao; Langeveld, J.G. (TU Delft Sanitary Engineering); BertrandKrajewski, J.L.; Clemens, F.H.L.R. (TU Delft Sanitary Engineering)Optimisation or real time control (RTC) studies in wastewater systems increasingly require rapid simulations of sewer systems in extensive catchments. To reduce the simulation time calibrated simplified models are applied, with the performance generally based on the goodness of fit of the calibration. In this research the performance of three simplified and a full hydrodynamic (FH) model for two catchments are compared based on the correct determination of CSO event occurrences and of the total discharged volumes to the surface water. Simplified model M1 consists of a rainfall runoff outflow (RRO) model only. M2 combines the RRO model with a static reservoir model for the sewer behaviour. M3 comprises the RRO model and a dynamic reservoir model. The dynamic reservoir characteristics were derived from FH model simulations. It was found that M2 and M3 are able to describe the sewer behaviour of the catchments, contrary to M1. The preferred model structure depends on the quality of the information (geometrical database and monitoring data) available for the design and calibration of the model. Finally, calibrated simplified models are shown to be preferable to uncalibrated FH models when performing optimisation or RTC studies.rCalibration; Conceptual models; Full hydrodynamic models; Integrated modelling; Monitoring; Urban drainage systems
20180601Sanitary Engineering)uuid:234f1650d9bd4985a70e2115ac9e5c95Dhttp://resolver.tudelft.nl/uuid:234f1650d9bd4985a70e2115ac9e5c95CModeling and Inferring Aircraft Takeoff Mass from Runway ADSB Data(Lovell, D. (editor); Fricke, H. (editor),Aircraft mass is an important parameter in many ways, either to build aircraft performance models, to predict flight trajectories, or to simulate air traffic. Mass data is usually considered as sensitive information for airlines and is, therefore, not disclosed to researchers publicly. In this paper, we use two methods to infer the mass of an aircraft at its takeoff phase. The first is by studying the kinetic model at liftoff moment. The second is to look at the motion of aircraft on the runway at each sample moment to estimate the mass recursively.?aircraft mass; performance modeling; weight estimation; BlueSky)uuid:0de8da1d8b9f44a7a5c22f9b52b4a488Dhttp://resolver.tudelft.nl/uuid:0de8da1d8b9f44a7a5c22f9b52b4a488A Parametric Modelling Process for the Integration of Architecture and Structure in Large Multifunctional Sports Hall Design: a Case StudyPan, W. (TU Delft OLD Structural Design; South China University of Technology); Sun, Yimin (South China University of Technology); Turrin, M. (TU Delft Design Informatics); Paul, J.C.BKawaguchi, K. (editor); Ohsaki, M. (editor); Takeuchi, T. (editor)The integration of architectural (functional spaces) and structural design is especially crucial for the conceptual design of large multifunctional sports halls, due to the strict regulations for functional spaces, the requireme< nt of largespan structure, and the complex interrelationships between these two aspects. This ongoing research aims at developing a computational method to support this integration during the conceptual design of large sports hall. This paper proposes a parametric modelling process to support a design exploration which is an important part of the computational method. A typical and simplified large multifunctional sports hall is used as an example case to demonstrate this process.parametric modelling process; Large multifunctional sports hall; functional space; largespan structure; design exploration)uuid:5779af2fa1db4fe0a00ee18f5d6d1db2Dhttp://resolver.tudelft.nl/uuid:5779af2fa1db4fe0a00ee18f5d6d1db2`A new robust design for imperfection sensitive stiffened cylinders used in aerospace engineering(Liang, K.; Zhang, Y.; Sun, Q.; Ruess, M.OA knockdown factor is commonly used to take into account the obvious decline of the buckling load in a cylindrical shell caused by the inevitable imperfections. In 1968, NASA guideline SP8007 gave knockdown factors which rely on a lowerbound curve taken from experimental data. Recent research has indicated that the NASA knockdown factors are inclined to produce very conservative estimations for the buckling load of imperfect shells, due to the limitations of the computational power and the experimental skills available five decades ago. A novel knockdown factor is proposed composed of two parts for the metallic stiffened cylinders. A deterministic study is applied to achieve the first part of the knockdown factor considering the measured geometric imperfection, the other types of imperfections are considered in the second part using a stochastic analysis. A smeared model is used to achieve the implementation of the measured geometric imperfection for the stiffened cylinder. This new robust and less conservative design for the stiffened cylinders is validated by using test resultsaknockdown factor; NASA guideline SP8007; stiffened cylinder; stochastic analysis; smeared modelSpringerAerospace Engineering Aerospace Structures & Materials)uuid:89455d9afb3842bfb1db03a8a5104bcfDhttp://resolver.tudelft.nl/uuid:89455d9afb3842bfb1db03a8a5104bcfZModel and Sensor Based Nonlinear Adaptive Flight Control with Online System Identification Sun, L.G.+Mulder, M. (promotor); Chu, Q.P. (promotor)jCConsensus exists that many lossofcontrol (LOC) in flight accidents caused by severe aircraft damage or system failure could be prevented if flight performance could be recovered using the valid and remaining control authorities. However, the safe maneuverability of a postfailure aircraft will inevitably be reduced due to the malfunction. Nonconventional control strategies which rely on modern control techniques and computational power are essential to control systems in postfailure flight conditions to extract the most from the reduced, remaining aircraft control authorities and restore the flight performance of an aircraft or achieve a safe landing. One such nonconventional control strategy is called active fault tolerant flight control (FTFC), which is designed to detect changes in an aircraft's dynamics caused by structural, actuator, or sensor failure and accommodate the damage or failure using an adaptive reconfiguration mechanism. The active FTFC technique is able to deal with unanticipated and multiple simultaneous failures. The overall architecture of an active FTFC system ideally should consist of a fault detection and diagnosis (FDD) module, a state reconstruction unit, a reconfigurable control component, a control allocation unit and a flight envelope protection (FEP) unit. Generally speaking, FTFC systems can be classified into two types: modelbased FTFC systems and modelfree FTFC systems, according to whether any of the system's components require an aerodynamic model at their core or not. A modelbased FTFC system contains an aerodynamic model identification (AMI) module, which supplies an accurate aircraft model to an indirect adaptive nonlinear controller in the rec< onfigurable control block, to a dynamic flight envelope determination algorithm in an FEP unit, or to an FDD unit. An aerodynamic model identification approach using a physical, interpretable modeling structure can detect and even quantify structural failures occurring in the aircraft structure or one of the control surfaces by monitoring changes in stability derivatives and control derivatives. There are many candidate control approaches which can achieve reconfiguration when designing a reconfigurable flight controller. These reconfigurable control methods may rely on many different reconfiguration mechanisms ranging from switching, model following, matching to adaptive compensation. These methods include nonlinear adaptive control which achieves reconfiguration through compensation, and this method is receiving increasing attention in the flight control aerospace research community. Nonlinear adaptive control is divided into direct adaptive control and indirect adaptive control, the difference is that the latter requires an online system model. Indirect adaptive control is also called modelbased or modular adaptive control, which has some advantages over the direct adaptive control and other modelfree control methods. One advantage is that a modular control approach has the potential to yield a more efficient controller which requires less control effort. Such an efficient controller can be achieved by maintaining useful damping terms of an identified system model in the closedloop system. This is attributed to the good properties of many control design techniques such as backstepping such that the dynamics of an original system can be chosen to be canceled or maintained during a controller design process. Modular adaptive control also has an inherited shortcoming, it can only guarantee inputtostate stability, i.e. modular adaptive control cannot guarantee the stability of the overall closedloop system because its stability proof relies on the certainty equivalence principle. The weakness of the certainty equivalence principle, i.e., convergence problem of the model parameters, can be improved by enhancing model accuracy or reliability, to do this, it becomes critical to develop advanced, powerful aerodynamic model identification approaches capable of capturing changes in flight dynamics either during a high maneuvering flight mission or a postfailure condition. Flight envelope protection is a necessary technique that should be applied by controller designers to prevent LOC incidents, taking into account highly maneuvering flight tasks and/or highly perturbed flight conditions due to the ongoing failure. An FEP component should provide a pilot with a safe flight envelope and pose constraints on the reference commands fed to an internal controller to make the commands achievable. An aerodynamic model that is valid over an entire flight envelope plays a crucial role in fullenvelope modular adaptive control and flight envelope protection. A globally valid model is required for modular adaptive control to enable the designed controller to work properly in a large operating range. Once estimated, the global model in a modelbased adaptive control method can be stored for later reuse when the same flight condition is revisited. Except being needed by a modelbased controller, an accurate aerodynamic model is also required for flight envelope protection. Naturally, the estimated aerodynamic model has to be valid for the current aircraft configuration over the entire flight envelope to enable an evolution algorithm to estimate the boundary of the safe flight envelope for the current flight condition. However, only a limited number of model identification approaches are suited for estimating a globally valid aerodynamic model, and each existing possible candidate has variant shortcomings or limitations which make it hard to apply directly to identify an aircraft model. For example, neural networks usually yield a nontransparent model structure which is hard to interpret using physical knowledge of the system, and they commonly encou< nter a convergence problem. Most kernel methods fall into the nonparametric type of methods, which by nature need as many kernels as the data points under evaluation. It should be kept in mind that only equationerror type model identification methods were investigated in the work reported here. The assumption was made that a sufficiently accurate estimation of aircraft states was available. An alternate method to the modular adaptive reconfigurable control approach is the acceleration measurementsbased incremental nonlinear control (AMINC) method. An accurate estimation of an aircraft is hard to achieve during a high maneuvering moment or at a transient period when the flight performance is highly perturbed due to aircraft failure. Incremental nonlinear controllers such as incremental nonlinear dynamic inversion (INDI), incremental backstepping (IBKS) and sensorbased backstepping (SBB) are suited for reconfigurable flight control designs in the sense that they do not require complete aircraft model knowledge. The main research question for the research presented here was: How can an advanced faulttolerant flight control system be designed to increase the survivability of an aircraft? This led to two subsidiary questions: (1). How can the candidate function approximation methods, i.e. multivariate simplex Bsplines and kernel methods, be improved in terms of approximation accuracy and computational efficiency, to meet the need of modelbased adaptive control and online flight envelope protection? (2). What are the benefits of using an acceleration measurementsbased control approach, i.e., the sensor based backstepping, as an alternative to a modelbased adaptive control approach, when designing a reconfigurable flight controller to deal with aircraft failures in a generic faulttolerant flight control (FTFC) system? With regard to reconfigurable control, the identified model should enable the controller to achieve active reconfiguration and restore the control performance. To answer these questions, four different global model identification methods and two nonlinear incremental adaptive controllers were developed. Two model identification methods use a parametric model structure namely standard multivariate simplex Bsplines. The focus was placed on how to achieve fast parameter estimation during the research process for these two methods. In the third identification method, a new model structure called tensorproduct simplex Bsplines was extended from a single dimension case to a multidimensional case, with a focus on demonstrating the advantage of this new compound model structure in terms of the flexibility in model structure selection, computational efficiency and approximation power. The fourth method uses a kernel type model structure which is also parametric. The new recursive kernel approach was developed by combining a classical recursive kernel method with a novel support vector regression approach. A model identification method using standard multivariate simplex Bsplines has many advantages, it can avoid the overfitting problem which occurs with an ordinary polynomial method using a triangulation technique. The approximation power of a simplex Bspline based method is determined by the persimplex polynomial order and smoothness order, and can be increased by increasing the density of the subdomains in a triangulation. This simplex Bspline based function approximation method guarantees that its output is bounded by the maximum and minimum Bcoefficients, this facilitates its certification for future real life applications. The linear regression formulation of the simplex Bspline based method allows for applying most of the constrained recursive parameter estimation methods. Furthermore, the simplex Bspline based method has a sparse property, which can lead to high computational efficiency by adopting distributed computation or other modern computing techniques. However, a simplex Bspline method can easily yield a large amount of unknown parameters if the function dimension exceeds 4, which results in a high comp< utational load considering the smoothness maintaining and covariance matrix updating. To enhance the computational efficiency of the model identification methods using simplex Bsplines, two recursive linearregression model identification methods were developed in this thesis: a substitutionbased multivariate simplex Bspline (SBMVSB) method and a recursive sequential multivariate simplex Bspline (RSMVSB) method. In the SBMVSB method, an efficient recursive solver is developed for a constrained linear regression problem when using simplex Bsplines. The constrained linear regression problem is converted into a constraintfree linear regression problem using a general solution for the equality constraints. This transformation was shown to reduce the scale of the identification problem in terms of the number of unknown parameters, and thus the computational load required for the model identification method can be reduced. The RSMVSB method consists of two consecutive procedures at one model evolution step. The first procedure achieves updating of a local model covering the current data point instead of a global model. The requirement of updating a complete covariance matrix is avoided by only updating one local model, and therefore the computational efficiency of this method is greatly enhanced. The second procedure guarantees a smooth transition between this local model and its neighboring local models. The computational complexity of SBMVSB and RSMVSB was given from a mathematician point of view, then, they were validated using simulated flight test data generated using a highfidelity nonlinear model of an F16 aircraft. Simulation results showed that both methods can achieve higher approximation accuracy than ordinary polynomial based methods, and both can be many, e.g. 10, times faster than an equality constraint recursive least squares based MVSB (ECRLSMVSB) method. The second feature of these two methods facilitates their future onboard applications. Tensorproduct simplex (TPS) Bsplines provide a compound structure, which provide more flexibility than a standard simplex Bspline model during model structure selection. Using TPS Bsplines, different dimension of inputs can be treated differently depending on their characteristics determined from a priori knowledge. In the work presented in this thesis, the TPS Bspline concept was extended from a single dimension case into a more general multidimensional case. Compared to standard simplex Bsplines, TPS Bsplines can make better use of a priori model knowledge. By reducing many unnecessary basis polynomials from the regression vector, TPS Bsplines have the potential to lead to a lower computational load than standard simplex Bsplines. The TPS Bspline method was validated using a data set generated from a highfidelity nonlinear F16 model. Simulation results showed that TPS Bsplines can yield higher approximation power than standard simplex Bsplines with less Bcoefficients. Two similar recursive parametric kernel methods namely weight varying least squares support vector regression (WVLSSVR) and Gaussian process kernel based LSSVR (GPKLSSVR) were developed for aerodynamic model identification in this thesis. The focus of this work was enhancing the approximation power of a recursive parametric kernel method by choosing an optimal set of kernels for the kernel scheme. An offline method called improved recursive reduced LSSVR (IRRLSSVR) was used to determine optimal kernels for a classical recursive kernel method. The new kernel method was validated using a series of public available benchmark data sets well known to researchers from the field of pattern recognition. GPKLSSVR showed a higher approximation power than WVLSSVR, and both of them showed a higher approximation power than a classical recursive kernel method based on kmeans clustering. A novel type of acceleration measurementsbased incremental flight control laws was investigated with the aim of providing a reconfigurable control unit with a powerful nonconventional flight control approach which cou< ld accommodate sudden structural or actuator failures occurring in an aircraft. The preferred modelfree, incremental control approach used in this thesis was the SBB approach, which was initially developed for control designs of nonlinear nonaffineincontrol systems. The SBB approach achieves an accurate reference command tracking performance by approximate dynamic inversion. The SBB approach was extended to deal with sudden model changes in an aircraft caused by structural or actuator failures. A hybrid twoloop angular controller and a joint twoloop angular controller were designed for the RECOVER model. In the hybrid twoloop angular controller, the angular control loop was designed using a nonlinear dynamic inversion (NDI) control law, and the angular rate loop controller using the SBB approach. In the joint twoloop angular controller, the overall controller was designed using a backstepping technique with each loop stabilized recursively. Both angular controllers were validated using the RECOVER model with a focus on dealing with perturbed aircraft flight performance caused by failures. Two benchmark fault scenarios were selected: a rudder runaway case and a flight 1862 engine separation scenario. Simulation results showed that both control setups can guarantee the safety of the postfailure aircraft and achieve a proper reference tracking performance. In comparison with the hybrid NDI/SBB angular controller, the joint SBB angular controller resulted in a better reference tracking performance for the sideslip angle, especially in the engine separation case. An SBB controller contains a time scale parameter, other incremental control laws such as incremental NDI (INDI) and incremental backstepping (IBKS) involve a control effectiveness matrix. Before we can investigate how the time scale parameter or a control effectiveness matrix affect the control performance of an incremental flight controller, the parameter variations of a control effectiveness matrix need to be estimated and analyzed. The TPS Bspline method and an immersion and invariance (I&I) method were chosen to estimate a control effectiveness matrix for an F16 aircraft. Although the I&I approach initially was not aimed at high modeling accuracy, it was assumed in this thesis that it is able to estimate the changing trend of the control derivatives. Simulation results showed that TPS Bsplines capture the changes in the control derivatives better than the I&I approach in terms of consistency. For F16, the control effectiveness matrix does not evidently affect the control performance of an incremental flight controller when a flight maneuver is moderate in terms of the variation of angle of attack and airspeed. Further research on modular adaptive reconfigurable control is required, for example incorporating the SBMVSB method or the WVLSSVR method into control designs to further check how well they are suited for modular adaptive control in terms of approximation power and onboard computational efficiency. Further research on acceleration measurements based reconfigurable control should include tests on the SIMONA simulator, realistic testflight with UAV and research aircraft.Flybywire; Aerodynamic model; Adaptive control; Fault tolerant; Reconfiguration; Flight envelope protection; Simplex spline theory+Ipskamp Drukkers, Enschede, The NetherlandsControl and Simulation
51.987, 4.377)uuid:44aea41bac9e48cd9d6ac75925c893ccDhttp://resolver.tudelft.nl/uuid:44aea41bac9e48cd9d6ac75925c893cc2Grandstand Grammar and its Computer ImplementationSun, Y.; Xiong, L.; Su, P.AIn sports facilities, a grandstand is the structure which provides good sight quality and safety evacuation conditions for the spectators. Grandstand plays important functional and formative roles in sports facilities, and especially in large scale stadia. This paper argues the notion of shape grammar and its computer implementation will solve the difficulties in grandstand design. The authors identify the specific difficulties of grandstand design, then set the aims of the grammatical compu< ter tool. Afterwards the shape grammar of grandstand design is formulated, and a computer tool is developed based on the grammar. At last, the paper discusses the application and usage of the grammar and the computer tool both in early design phase and design development phase with a design practice case study of a large scale stadium.6Grandstand design; shape grammar; parametric modelling)uuid:fa68d1b6623649b8819fc76452ddab3bDhttp://resolver.tudelft.nl/uuid:fa68d1b6623649b8819fc76452ddab3bdOnline Aerodynamic Model Identification using a Recursive Sequential Method for Multivariate Splines3Sun, L.G.; De Visser, C.C.; Chu, Q.P.; Mulder, J.A.6Avoiding high computational loads is essential to online aerodynamic model identi fication algorithms, which are at the heart of any modelbased adaptive flight control system. Multivariate simplex Bspline (MVSB) methods are excellent function approximation tools for modeling the nonlinear aerodynamics of high performance aircraft. However, the computational efficiency of the MVSB method must be improved in order to enable realtime onboard applications, for example in adaptive nonlinear flight control systems. In this paper, a new recursive sequential identification strategy is proposed for the MVSB method aimed at increasing its computational efficiency, thereby allowing its use in onboard system identification applications. The main contribution of this new method is a significant reduction of computational load for large scale online identification problems as compared to the existing MVSB methods. The proposed method consists of two sequential steps for each time interval, and makes use of a decomposition of the global problem domain into a number of subdomains, called modules. In the first step the Bcoefficients for each module are estimated using a least squares estimator. In the second step the local Bcoefficients for each module are then smoothened into a single global Bcoefficient vector using a linear minimum mean square errors (LMMSE) estimation. The new method is compared to existing batch and recursive MVSB methods in a numerical experiment in which an aerodynamic model is recursively identified based on data from an NASA F16 windtunnel model.Precursive identification; aerodynamic model identification; multivariate splinesAIAAControl & Operations)uuid:e070de9de8054aa59bcc7f8719bb56e1Dhttp://resolver.tudelft.nl/uuid:e070de9de8054aa59bcc7f8719bb56e1eA novel adaptive kernel method with kernel centers determined by a support vector regression approach]The optimality of the kernel number and kernel centers plays a significant role in determining the approximation power of nearly all kernel methods. However, the process of choosing optimal kernels is always formulated as a global optimization task, which is hard to accomplish. Recently, an algorithm, namely improved recursive reduced least squares support vector regression (IRRLSSVR), was proposed for establishing a global nonparametric offline model, which demonstrates significant advantage in choosing representing and fewer support vectors compared with others. Inspired by the IRR LSSVR, a new adaptive parametric kernel method called WVLSSVR is proposed in this paper using the same type of kernels and the same centers as those used in the IRRLSSVR. Furthermore, inspired by the multikernel semiparametric support vector regression, the effect of the kernel extension is investigated in a recursive regression framework, and a recursive kernel method called GPKLSSVR is proposed using a compound type of kernels which are recommended for Gaussian process regression. Numerical experiments on benchmark data sets confirm the validity and effectiveness of the presented algorithms. The WVLSSVR algorithm shows higher approximation accuracy than the recursive parametric kernel method using the centers calculated by the kmeans clustering approach. The extended recursive kernel method (i.e. GPKLSSVR) has not shown advantage in terms of global approximation accuracy when validating the test data set without realtime <updation, but it can increase modeling accuracy if the realtime identification is involved.Wsupport vector machine; recursive identification; adaptive model; kernel basis functionElsevier)uuid:6bd4b059b6fb4b3c8972f39bfbedd791Dhttp://resolver.tudelft.nl/uuid:6bd4b059b6fb4b3c8972f39bfbedd791QThe minimum wind speed for sustainable turbulence in the nocturnal boundary layernVan de Wiel, B.J.H.; Moene, A.F.; Jonker, H.J.J.; Baas, P.; Basu, S.; Donda, J.M.M.; Sun, J.; Holtslag, A.A.M.@The collapse of turbulence in the nocturnal boundary layer is studied by means of a simple bulk model that describes the basic physical interactions in the surface energy balance. It is shown that for a given mechanical forcing, the amount of turbulent heat that can be transported downward is limited to a certain maximum. In the case of weak winds and clear skies, this maximum can be significantly smaller than the net radiative loss minus soil heat transport. In the case when the surface has low heat capacity, this imbalance generates rapid surface cooling that further suppresses the turbulent heat transport, so that eventually turbulence largely ceases (positive feedback mechanism). The model predicts the minimum wind speed for sustainable turbulence for the socalled crossing level. At this level, some decameters above the surface, the wind is relatively stationary compared to lower and higher levels. The critical speed is predicted in the range of about 5 7 m s21, depending on radiative forcing and surface properties, and is in agreement with observations at Cabauw. The critical value appears not very sensitive to model details or to the exact values of the input parameters. Finally, results are interpreted in terms of external forcings, such as geostrophic wind. As it is generally larger than the speed at crossing height, a 5 m s21 geostrophic wind may be considered as the typical limit below which sustainable, continuous turbulence under clearsky conditions is unlikely to exist. Below this threshold emergence of the very stable nocturnal boundary layer is anticipated.esurface layer; wind; surface observations; land surface model; nonlinear models; single column modelsAmerican Meteorological Society
20130501Applied SciencesMultiScale Physics
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