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Kreeft, Davey (author), Arkenbout, E.A. (author), Henselmans, P.W.J. (author), Van Furth, Wouter R. (author), Breedveld, P. (author)
A clear visualization of the operative field is of critical importance in endoscopic surgery. During surgery the endoscope lens can get fouled by body fluids (eg, blood), ground substance, rinsing fluid, bone dust, or smoke plumes, resulting in visual impairment. As a result, surgeons spend part of the procedure on intermittent cleaning of...
review 2017