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Calibri 83ffff̙̙3f3fff3f3f33333f33333.KjTU Delft Repositoryg Juuidrepository linktitleauthorcontributorpublication yearabstract
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departmentresearch group programmeprojectcoordinates)uuid:6e2f880d9eab4d96bdf222001c2bce0dDhttp://resolver.tudelft.nl/uuid:6e2f880d9eab4d96bdf222001c2bce0dkEnvelope Estimation and Protection of Innovative Control Effectors (ICE) Aircraft: A Probabilistic Approach.Yin, Mingzhou (TU Delft Aerospace Engineering)zde Visser, Coen (mentor); Chu, Qiping (graduation committee); Delft University of Technology (degree granting institution)Loss of control is considered as the primary cause of fatal accidents in aviation, which occurs when the aircraft has left the safe flight envelope. To reduce lossofcontrolrelated accidents, it is important to estimate the safe flight envelope at the current flight condition and integrate it into flight control system design. This task is known as envelope estimation and protection. This project investigates this task on the Innovative Control Effectors aircraft, an overactuated tailless fighter aircraft with complex aerodynamic coupling between control effectors. It has been observed that this aircraft can easily steer outside the flight envelope and lose control due to its huge control authority.<br/><br/>This thesis proposes a novel and practical framework for safe flight envelope estimation and protection, in order to reduce lossofcontrolrelated accidents. Despite that multiple envelope estimation methods exist in literature, conventional analytical estimation methods fail to function efficiently for systems with high dimensionality and complex dynamics, which is often the case for highfidelity aircraft models. In this way, this paper develops a probabilistic envelope estimation method based on Monte Carlo simulation. This method generates a probabilistic estimation of the flight envelope with kernel density estimation by simulating a sample of flight trajectories with extreme control effectiveness, which describes the envelope more practically with fuzzy sets instead of conventional crisp sets. It is shown that this method can significantly reduce the computational load compared with previous optimizationbased methods and guarantee feasible and conservative envelope estimation of no less than seven dimensions. This method was applied to the Innovative Control Effectors aircraft developed by Lockheed Martin. The estimation results are demonstrated by comparing different flight conditions and covariance analysis.<br/><br/>The estimated probabilistic flight envelope is used for online envelope protection by a database approach, which estimates the flight envelope offline and carries the results onboard for protection. Both a conventional stateconstraintbased and a novel predictive probabilistic flight envelope protection systems were implemented on a multiloop nonlinear dynamic inversion controller by extending the concept of pseudo control hedging. No systematic framework was available to apply envelope protection to such controller. Realtime simulation results prove that the proposed framework can protect the aircraft within the estimated envelope and save the aircraft from maneuvers that otherwise would result in loss of control. Possibilities were also explored to employ parametric models in envelope protection to simplify the database.<br/><br/>This work, however, is still limited to offline estimation with openloop commands. Future work can extend this framework to aircraft damage models and closedloop commands.Flight envelope; Innovative Control Effectors; Flight Control Systems; Nonlinear control; Monte Carlo simulation; Reachability Analysisen
master thesis
20210710)uuid:df32613c5f3c484e84ea99672939d6a5Dhttp://resolver.tudelft.nl/uuid:df32613c5f3c484e84ea99672939d6a5MDistributed Approach for Aerodynamic Model Identification of the ICE AircraftUvan den Aarssen, Marc (TU Delft Aerospace Engineering; TU Delft Control & Simulation)Vde< Visser, Coen (mentor); Delft University of Technology (degree granting institution)High performance control allocation methods for the Innovative Control Effectors (ICE) aircraft require accurate onboard aerodynamic models, with preferably first order continuity. Simplotope BSplines, an extension on Simplex BSplines, have a high approximation power by using local basis functions. However, enforcing global continuity produces computationally expensive optimization problems. This thesis presents a distributed approach, using the Alternating Direction Method of Multipliers (ADMM), to reduce the complexity of the BCoefficients estimation. ADMM decouples the simplotopes, and introduces coupling coefficients to enforce global continuity, resulting in a parallel estimation algorithm whose complexity is depending solely on the partition size, being independent of refinement of the model tessellation. Results show that for a 3D model, the distributed algorithm converges steadily to the global solution with a good approximation accuracy after a few hundred iterations. Validation results of the distributed approach were similar to those of the global optimal solution for various noise intensities, and the continuity constraints were satisfied with maximum mismatches below 104. The distributed approach has been used to construct a first order continuous aerodynamic model for the ICE aircraft, which has been implemented in Simulink, and proven to perform well compared to the original model.Simplex BSplines; Simplotope BSplines; Distributed Optimization; Alternating Direction Method of Multipliers; Innovative Control Effectors; Aerodynamic Model Identification
20210413)uuid:81ec8897a3174a29b4412a51e317066eDhttp://resolver.tudelft.nl/uuid:81ec8897a3174a29b4412a51e317066eKThesis Report: Finding trim points of the ICE model using interval analysisNHungs, Stephen (TU Delft Aerospace Engineering; TU Delft Control & Simulation)van Kampen, ErikJan (mentor); Chu, Qiping (graduation committee); de Visser, Coen (graduation committee); van der Wal, Wouter (graduation committee); Delft University of Technology (degree granting institution)In this work interval analysis is applied to the thirteen control effector Innovative Control Effectors model to find its trim set. The method to find trim states is based on interval box consistency. At low speed the method is capable of finding interval enclosures of single trim points with a high accuracy if the minimum number of required control effectors is used. At higher speeds the found accelerations are larger. When looking for a full trim set the method finds continuous bounds on the control effectors for the entire input range in one run. This is a good demonstration of the advantages that interval analysis has over conventional methods that generally can only find one trim point at a time. The found bounds are a maximum of 1 deg wide for each control effector, but despite this the remaining accelerations can be up to 0.5 m/s^2 for linear accelerations and up to 10 deg/s^2 for rotational accelerations. Because of these large accelerations the found solutions are not acceptable as trim conditions. On the other hand the potential that interval analysis has as a trimming method is demonstrated, since continuous bounds on trim sets have been found in a single run. This is a feat that no other trimming method has yet accomplished. Further research is needed to exploit the full potential of interval trim methods so that the results can be used for other purposes such as flight envelope prediction.>Interval analysis; Innovative Control Effectors; Aircraft trim)uuid:43ce35bceb944c7ba82680a80e24a6d6Dhttp://resolver.tudelft.nl/uuid:43ce35bceb944c7ba82680a80e24a6d6Minimum drag control allocation for the Innovative Control Effector aircraft: Optimal use of control redundancy on modern fighters+Stolk, Rob (TU Delft Aerospace Engineering)The Innovative Control Effector model is a tailless deltawing aircraft concept equipped with 11 control surfaces with overlapping functionality and twodi< rectional thrust vectoring. The high level of redundancy makes it an interesting object for research on missionspecific control allocation. A (splinebased) incremental control allocation approach is proposed to deal with nonlinear input functions and aerodynamic interaction between multiple control surfaces. Two control allocation modes to minimize drag are proposed and assessed in a general flight scenario. With both modes the average drag is reduced by about 6.5% relative to a standard control allocation scheme. Sensitivity analysis points out that one mode is vulnerable to the choice of initial parameters, whereas the other is primarily sensitive to the accuracy of the onboard model. Improvement of the ICE aerodynamic model is necessary to substantiate the true potential of missionspecific control allocation for next generation aircraft.cControl Allocation; Innovative Control Effectors; ICE; Incremental Control; Tailless Aircraft; DragControl & Simulation)uuid:9650d852c60f4ab4ac2d1592ab9c7b6dDhttp://resolver.tudelft.nl/uuid:9650d852c60f4ab4ac2d1592ab9c7b6dNonlinear Control Allocation for a HighPerformance Tailless Aircraft with Innovative Control Effectors: An Incremental Robust ApproachUMatamoros Cid, Ismael (TU Delft Aerospace Engineering; TU Delft Control & Operations)lde Visser, Coen (mentor); Chu, Qiping (mentor); Delft University of Technology (degree granting institution)Conventional linear control allocation (LCA) methods fail to provide satisfactory performance in flight control systems (FCS) for aircraft with highly nonlinear and coupled control effector suites, especially for tailless aircraft with strong interactions between control effectors. This thesis implements an incremental nonlinear control allocation (INCA) approach that can capture nonlinearities and interactions of control effectors, while being solvable with computationally efficient LCA algorithms. This makes INCA suitable for realtime control allocation in FCS. This incremental reformulation of the control allocation problem is based on a Jacobian model of the control effectors, and relies on angular acceleration measurements to reduce model dependency. In addition, realtime measurements of the actuator positions mitigate typical problems related to couplings between control allocators and actuator dynamics. In this paper, LCA and INCAbased nonlinear FCS are designed for the Innovative Control Effectors (ICE) aircraft, a highly maneuverable tailless aircraft with 13 highly nonlinear, interacting and axiscoupled control effectors. Realtime simulation results showed that INCA dramatically improves tracking and control allocation performance with respect to LCA methods, thus improving maneuverability and exploiting the full potential of innovative control effector suites. Additionally, a sensitivity analysis revealed that the INCA method is highly robust against Jacobian model mismatch.Control Allocation; ICE; Incremental Control; Nonlinear Control Allocation; Flight Control Systems; Innovative Control Effectors
20200828)uuid:7730dd692bb840478f6d5681cfd04ceeDhttp://resolver.tudelft.nl/uuid:7730dd692bb840478f6d5681cfd04ceeJPhysical Splines for Aerodynamic Modelling of Innovative Control Effectorsvan der Peijl, I.V.de Visser, C.C. (mentor)vMultivariate simplex Bsplines as a modelling technique provide more accurate models than standard polynomial models, which makes them an excellent modelling tool. Their coefficients, which are expressed in a barycentric coordinate system, are abstract. In this paper a physical transformation matrix is derived which can be applied to transform Bcoefficients into physical coefficients. The result is a set of persimplex polynomials in Cartesian space. Direct computation of physical coefficients is also possible, but undesired because the physical transformation matrix is illconditioned and causes inaccurate regression. A case is made for using Kuhn s triangulation algorithm which is preferred for perfectly gridded data structures, instead of the more conventional Delaunay method for t<
riangulation of the model domain. The physical spline modelling technique is applied on Lockheed Martin s Innovative Control Effector concept aircraft. Two models are created: a large set of simplices hosting polynomials of degree one, and a smaller set of simplices with higher order polynomials. These both are analytical formulations which can be used for control allocation. The resulting models are accurate and C0 continuous, but have local areas of error which could have an undesirable effect on control allocation. The high degree model more is affected by this more than the degree one model.sMultivariate Simplex BSplines; Physical Splines; Innovative Control Effectors; ICE; Kuhn; Triangulation; Modelling
20200407Aerospace EngineeringControl & Operations
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