The performance of such a TSHD is described by its production: the amount of sediment loaded in the hopper per unit time. The overflow loss, the material lost overboard, can easily reach up to 30%, which causes a significant decrease of the production. In addition, the turbidity plume caused by these overflow losses can have a negative environmental impact. This turbidity plume reduces light penetration, clogs filter feeders, and disperses contaminants which can be attached to the sediment. Damen is interested in estimating and reducing these overflow losses. Different models to estimate the amount of material lost overboard exist. All these models have their pros and cons. The analytical model of Miedema & Vlasblom(1996) gives a quick and good estimate of the overflow losses, but gives no insight in the flow inside the hopper. The 2DV model of Van Rhee(2002) is able to accurately simulate the flow inside the hopper, but has a large computation time. The 2DV model of this thesis gives a good estimate of the overflow losses, gives insight in the flow inside the hopper, and has an acceptable computation time.

The new 2DV model was developed in OpenFOAM. At the start of this thesis, it was possible to model mixture flow in OpenFOAM, but a sand bed could not be modelled yet. Several features had to be added to OpenFOAM to overcome this problem. The sand bed was regarded as a solid body inside the computational domain. To simulate the influence of this solid body on the mixture flow, boundary conditions were added at the bed interface. Sedimentation was modelled by adding a moving mesh. The closed flume experiments of Van Rhee(2002) have been used to validate that sedimentation is simulated accurately. By comparing hopper simulations with the hopper experiments of Van Rhee(2002), it was shown that the flow in the hopper was also simulated accurately. The computed overflow losses are, however, on the low side. The current version of OpenFOAM can calculate with only one particle fraction. In reality, the smaller fractions of the Particle Size Distribution are pushed upwards, causing the overflow losses to be higher. The 2DV-model gave a deeper insight to the phenomena in the hopper. It was possible to derive several equations which describe the flow in the hopper. With these new formulas, a simple phenomenological model was developed, which was named the 'Layer Model'.","sedimentation; hopper; OpenFOAM; CFD; overflow losses","en","master thesis","","","","","","","","2019-12-31","","","","Offshore and Dredging Engineering","OpenFOAM",""