Searched for: subject%3A%22treaty%255C+ports%22
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document
Bracken, G. (author)
China was forced to open its first treaty ports in 1842. This was one of the conditions of the Treaty of Nanking (now Nanjing), which ended the First Opium War (1839–42). The country was forced to make further concessions with the Treaty of Tientsin, which ended the Second Opium War (1856–60). China saw an ever-increasing number of treaty ports...
review 2023
document
Bracken, G. (author)
review 2019
document
Sun, Y. (author), Hein, C.M. (author), Song, Kun (author), Feng, Lin (author)
Tianjin, one of the so-called Treaty Ports that opened to foreign trade under the unequal treaties was home to nine foreign concessions. In each concession, the foreign powers created urban forms and functions that mirrored practices in their respective home countries. This article explores the consecutive establishment and implementation of...
conference paper 2018