Flight simulator experiments concerning take-off visibility minima

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The Working Group on All-Weather Operations of the European Civil Aviation Conference (ECAC) has initiated a study concerning the factors influencing the minium required visibility at take-off. In two special checkout sessions on the KLM Boeing 747 flight simulator, the experimental conditions have been defined for an investigation directed at the minimum required visual reference to control the aircraft after a failure of the most critical engine at an inconvenient moment during the take-off run. An investigation has been carried out involving a large number of KLM Boeing 747 crews, in which a total of 159 aborted take-offs have been performed in low visibility. This report presents the results of pilot comments and ratings as well as measured pilot-aircraft performance data for these take-offs. It is concluded that aborted take-offs can be performed safely in night conditions on runways with 15 or 30 m centreline light spacing with an RVR of as low as 150 m, provided the pilot-flying keeps looking outside and the pilot not-flying gives speed calls.