Development of an LADM-based conceptual data model for 3D underground land administration in Victoria

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Currently, many cities around the world use underground space for different applications such as tunnels, utility networks, parking, walkways, and shopping malls. Due to the increasing use of underground areas, management of this space is very important for decision-makers and stakeholders. A 3D Underground Land Administration (ULA) data model has an underpinning role in the management of spatial and semantic information of underground physical structures (physical aspects) as well as the ownership attributes and the extent of legal spaces in underground (legal aspects). Current data models focus on either physical or legal aspects and are mostly based on 2D approaches. The Land Administration Domain Model (LADM), as an ISO standard (ISO 19152), is a prominent legal 3D model adopted for land administration. Several studies and countries have used this data model for land administration purposes. However, LADM has not been fully implemented for modelling underground assets. In addition, it does not consider the physical aspects of underground objects. Physical structures have significant roles in defining the ownership extent of underground assets in some jurisdictions such as Victoria, Australia. On the other hand, LADM-based data models developed by different studies are based on the current requirements and legislative of different jurisdictions. Although these solutions can be helpful, a comprehensive underground data model customised for Victoria is needed. This research aims to develop an LADM-based conceptual data model for 3D ULA to enable integrated management of underground assets by interlinking legal and physical aspects. It is based on the requirements and legislative of Victoria jurisdiction. These requirements include underground legal objects and boundaries and underground physical objects. The data model developed in this study is one of the first and crucial steps to enable 3D digital management of underground rights, restrictions and responsibilities (RRRs) in Victoria.