Declarative procedural generation of architecture with semantic architectural profiles

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Procedural content generation (PCG) for architecture is widely used in a variety of digital media, most notably in games. However, such methods are often limited in their expressive range, and require considerable technical knowledge to create non-trivial architectural structures. We present a novel tile-based PCG approach for generating architecture, that proposes the use of architectural profiles, a declarative characterization of architectural typology, within a generic tile solving framework. An architectural profile consists of a set of tiles, representing atomic architectural building blocks, and a set of declarative constraints and rules, specifying which conditions a tile configuration has to satisfy to be valid. These conditions are translated into logic constraints, and used by a tile solver to control tile placement in a bottom-up manner. Eventually, each valid model output by the solver is a representative instance of its architectural profile. We describe an implementation of this approach with Answer Set Programming, using an off-the-shelf constraint solver for model generation. We performed an expressive range analysis, and concluded that our declarative method is quite controllable and can be steered over a broad range of architectural structures, regarding density and repetitiveness. Due to this expressive range and control, our tile-based method is very suitable for the customized development of urban environments for games.