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1 The FEMA GRAS assessment of phenethyl alcohol, aldehyde, acid, and related acetals and esters used as flavor ingredients
article 2005    
Author: Adams, T.B. · Cohen, S.M. · Doull, J. · Feron, V.J. · Goodman, J.I. · Marnett, L.J. · Munro, I.C. · Portoghese, P.S. · Smith, R.L. · Waddell, W.J. · Wagner, B.M.
Keywords: Nutrition Toxicology · Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology · FEMA GRAS · Flavoring ingredients · PEA · acetal derivative · acid · aldehyde · ester derivative · ethyl(4 tolyloxy)acetate · flavoring agent · isopropylphenylacetaldehyde · phenethyl alcohol · phenethyl phenylacetate · phenethyl senecioate · phenoxyacetic acid · phenoxyacetic acid derivative · phenoxyethyl alcohol · phenylacetic acid · sodium 2 (4 methoxyphenoxy)propanoate · unclassified drug · absorption · carcinogenicity · chemical analysis · chemical structure · data analysis · detoxification · evaluation · excretion · exposure · flavor · food analysis · food composition · food intake · food poisoning · food safety · genotoxicity · health care organization · human · hydrolysis · in vitro study · in vivo study · information · metabolism · mutagenesis · nonhuman · review · risk assessment · science · structure analysis · toxicity · Acetaldehyde · Acetals · Animals · Esters · Flavoring Agents · Food Industry · Humans · Phenylacetates · Phenylethyl Alcohol · Toxicity Tests · United States · United States Food and Drug Administration · Animalia
[Abstract]

2 Decrease of intracellular pH as possible mechanism of embryotoxicity of glycol ether alkoxyacetic acid metabolites
article 2010    
Author: Louisse, J. · Bai, Y. · Verwei, M. · Sandt, J.J.M. van de · Blaauboer, B.J. · Rietjens, I.M.C.M.
Keywords: Biology · Biomedical Research · BALB/c-3T3 cells · Embryonic stem cells · Embryotoxicity · Glycol ethers · Intracellular pH · Mechanism · acetazolamide · acetic acid derivative · alkoxyacetic acid glycol ether derivative · amiloride · butoxyacetic acid · ethoxyacetic acid · fluorouracil · methoxyacetic acid · phenoxyacetic acid · retinoic acid · unclassified drug · valproic acid · acidification · animal cell · animal cell culture · article · cell differentiation · cell pH · cell strain 3T3 · controlled study · embryonic stem cell · embryotoxicity · metabolite · mouse · nonhuman · pH measurement · Acetazolamide · Acetic Acids · Animals · BALB 3T3 Cells · Cell Differentiation · Embryo, Mammalian · Embryonic Stem Cells · Ethylene Glycols · Glycolates · Hydrogen-Ion Concentration · Intracellular Fluid · Mice · Teratogens · Valproic Acid
[Abstract]

3 Relative developmental toxicity of glycol ether alkoxy acid metabolites in the embryonic stem cell test as compared with the in vivo potency of their parent compounds
article 2009    
Author: Jong, E. de · Louisse, J. · Verwei, M. · Blaauboer, B.J. · Sandt, J.J.M. van de · Woutersen, R.A. · Rietjens, I.M.C.M. · Piersma, A.H.
Keywords: Chemistry · Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology · Alternatives to animal testing · Developmental toxicology · Embryonic stem cells · Glycol ethers · butoxyacetic acid · ethoxyacetic acid · glycol ether alkoxy acid metabolite · methoxyacetic acid · phenoxyacetic acid · toxin · unclassified drug · animal cell · article · cell differentiation · chemical analysis · chemical structure · concentration response · controlled study · cytotoxicity test · developmental disorder · developmental toxicity · embryonic stem cell · embryonic stem cell test · embryotoxicity · heart muscle cell · in vivo study · mouse · nonhuman · sensitivity analysis · toxicokinetics · Animal Testing Alternatives · Animals · Biotransformation · Cell Differentiation · Cell Survival · Dose-Response Relationship, Drug · Embryonic Development · Embryonic Stem Cells · Glycols · Kinetics · Mice · Models, Statistical · Myocytes, Cardiac · Predictive Value of Tests · Reference Standards · Structure-Activity Relationship · Teratogens · Animalia
[Abstract]

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