Sediment pollution and accumulation in harbours are major environmental issues and studies that advance their solutions are essential for harbour sustainability. This thesis provides the first comprehensive assessment of chemical pollution in sediments and sediment accumulation rates in the tropical Tema Harbour (Ghana). This thesis contributes to improving our ability to use an integrated approach involving sediment chemistry and bioassays in one comprehensive assessment of the contamination state of a tropical coastal environment. Whole-sediment toxicity bioassays using the amphipod Corophium volutator and the polychaete Hediste diversicolor as bioindicators were combined with data on concentrations of total metal and metal binding forms, radionuclides, organochlorine pesticides and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in bottom sediments as well as total metal concentrations in settling silt-clay particles collected by sediment traps to characterise the hazard, risk and impact of sediments from the tropical coastal Tema Harbour. This thesis has demonstrated, for the first time, how sediment trap data can complement sediment core data with the use of multitracers, gamma spectrometry and the 210Pb-based TERESA model to obtain reliable information on sediment dynamics and recent sediment accumulation rates (SARs) in a disturbed tropical marine sedimentary system, which is not possible by using conventional 210Pb sediment dating models.