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Critical loads of Cadmium, Lead and Mercury and their exceedances in Europe

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Author: Hettelingh, J.P. · Schutze, G. · Vries, W. de · Denier van der Gon, H.A.C. · Ilyin, I. · Reinds, G.J. · Slootweg, J. · Travnikov, O.
Type:bookPart
Date:2015
Publisher: Springer
Place: Dordrecht
Source:Critical loads and dynamic risk assessment: Nitrogen, Acidity and Metals in Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecosystems, 523-546
Identifier: 526156
Keywords: Environment · Environment & Sustainability · Urbanisation · Urban Mobility & Environment · CAS - Climate, Air and Sustainability · ELSS - Earth, Life and Social Sciences

Abstract

Cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and mercury (Hg) are known to be transported over relatively long distances from their sources. Deposited metals may accumulate over time in soils and catchments, and then follow varying pathways to endpoints in humans and the environment. Cadmium and lead, that are emitted primarily as particulate matter, and mercury in gaseous form, can be transported over long distances. This is especially the case when emissions consist of either relatively small particles or of gaseous compounds. The latter occurs especially for anthropogenically emitted mercury, tetra-methyl lead and tetra-ethyl lead. Under the effect-oriented programmes within the LRTAP Convention, the International Cooperative Programmes on Integrated Monitoring and Forests have found that atmospherically deposited Pb and Hg can accumulate in forested catchments in northern-central Europe, and that depositions can exceed thresholds for effects in soil organisms. The combination of Cd that is atmospherically deposited, used in fertilizer and naturally occurring in soils may accumulate to exposures of concern