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Toll-like receptor 2 activation by β2→1-fructans protects barrier function of t84 human intestinal epithelial cells in a chain length-dependent manner

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Author: Vogt, L.M. · Meyer, D. · Pullens, G. · Faas, M.M. · Venema, K. · Ramasamy, U. · Schols, H.A. · Vos, P. de
Type:article
Date:2014
Source:Journal of Nutrition, 7, 144, 1002-1008
Identifier: 513427
doi: doi:10.3945/jn.114.191643
Keywords: Biology · Bocking antibody · Inulinase · Phorbol 13 acetate 12 myristate · Receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B · Short chain fatty acid · Toll like receptor 2 · B lymphocyte · Cell function · Cell interaction · Cell protection · Colon carcinoma · Dietary fiber · Electric cell substrate impedance sensing · Electric resistance · Enzyme activation · Enzyme substrate · Human · Human cell · Impedance · Intestine epithelium cell · Intestine function · Permeability barrier · Regulatory mechanism · Tight junction · Transepithelial electrical resistance · Biomedical Innovation · Healthy Living · Life · MSB - Microbiology and Systems Biology · ELSS - Earth, Life and Social Sciences

Abstract

Dietary fiber intake is associated with lower incidence and mortality from disease, but the underlying mechanisms of these protective effects are unclear.We hypothesized that β2→1-fructan dietary fibers confer protection on intestinal epithelial cell barrier function via Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), and we studied whether β2→1-fructan chain-length differences affect this process. T84 human intestinal epithelial cell monolayers were incubated with 4 β2→1-fructan formulations of different chain-length compositions and were stimulated with the proinflammatory phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA). Transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) was analyzed by electric cell substrate impedance sensing (ECIS) as a measure for tight junction-mediated barrier function. To confirm TLR2 involvement in barrier modulation by β2→1-fructans, ECIS experiments were repeated using TLR2 blocking antibody. After preincubation of T84 cells with short-chain β2→1-fructans, the decrease in TEER as induced by PMA (62.3 ± 5.2%, P < 0.001) was strongly attenuated (15.2 ± 8.8%, P < 0.01). However, when PMA was applied first, no effect on recovery was observed during addition of the fructans. By blocking TLR2 on the T84 cells, the protective effect of short-chain β2→1-fructans was substantially inhibited. Stimulation of human embryonic kidney human TLR2 reporter cells with β2→1-fructans induced activation of nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells, confirming that β2→1-fructans are specific ligands for TLR2. To conclude, β2→1-fructans exert time-dependent and chain length-dependent protective effects on the T84 intestinal epithelial cell barrier mediated via TLR2. These results suggest that TLR2 located on intestinal epithelial cells could be a target of β2→1-fructan-mediated health effects. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.Chemicals/CAS: inulinase, 9025-67-6; phorbol 13 acetate 12 myristate, 16561-29-8; toll like receptor 2, 203811-81-8