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Associations between FTO genotype and total energy and macronutrient intake in adults: A systematic review and meta-analysis

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Author: Livingstone K.M. · Celis-Morales C. · Lara J. · Ashor A.W. · Lovegrove J.A. · Martinez J.A. · Saris W.H. · Gibney M. · Manios Y. · Traczyk I. · Drevon C.A. · Daniel H. · Gibney E.R. · Brennan L. · Bouwman J. · Grimaldi K.A. · Mathers J.C.
Type:article
Date:2015
Source:Obesity Reviews, 8, 16, 666-678
Identifier: 530126
doi: doi:10.1111/obr.12290
Keywords: Biology · FTO · Macronutrient intake · Meta-analysis · Total energy intake · Alcohol · Carbohydrate · Monounsaturated fatty acid · Polyunsaturated fatty acid · Protein · Saturated fatty acid · Adult · Allele · Body weight · Caloric intake · Carbohydrate intake · Dietary intake · Effect size · Fat intake · Fat mass and obesity associated gene · Gene · Genetic association · Genetic risk · Genotype · Human · Macronutrient · Medline · Protein intake · Regression analysis · Risk assessment · Single nucleotide polymorphism · Biomedical Innovation · Healthy Living · Life · MSB - Microbiology and Systems Biology · ELSS - Earth, Life and Social Sciences

Abstract

Risk variants of fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene have been associated with increased obesity. However, the evidence for associations between FTO genotype and macronutrient intake has not been reviewed systematically. Our aim was to evaluate the potential associations between FTO genotype and intakes of total energy, fat, carbohydrate and protein. We undertook a systematic literature search in OVID MEDLINE, Scopus, EMBASE and Cochrane of associations between macronutrient intake and FTO genotype in adults. Beta coefficients and confidence intervals (CIs) were used for per allele comparisons. Random-effect models assessed the pooled effect sizes. We identified 56 eligible studies reporting on 213,173 adults. For each copy of the FTO risk allele, individuals reported 6.46kcal day-1 (95% CI: 10.76, 2.16) lower total energy intake (P=0.003). Total fat (P=0.028) and protein (P=0.006), but not carbohydrate intakes, were higher in those carrying the FTO risk allele. After adjustment for body weight, total energy intakes remained significantly lower in individuals with the FTO risk genotype (P=0.028). The FTO risk allele is associated with a lower reported total energy intake and with altered patterns of macronutrient intake. Although significant, these differences are small and further research is needed to determine whether the associations are independent of dietary misreporting. © 2015 International Association for the Study of Obesity. Chemicals/CAS: alcohol, 64-17-5; protein, 67254-75-5