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The importance of rotational kinematics in pedestrian head to windshield impacts

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Author: Mordaka, J. · Kleiven, S. · Schijndel-de Nooij, M. van · Lange, R. de · Casanova, L.J.G. · Carter, E.L. · Holst, H. von
Institution: TNO Industrie en Techniek
Source:2007 International IRCOBI Conference on the Biomechanics of Injury, 19 September 2007 through 21 September 2007, Maastricht, 83-94
Identifier: 446488
ISBN: 9782951421080
Keywords: Safety · Brains · Finite element method (FEM) · Head injury · Pedestrians


The objective of the present study was to analyze the effect of angular kinematics on head injury in pedestrian head-to-windshield impacts. Three cases of pedestrian head impacts were simulated with FE head and windshield models. The initial impact conditions were obtained from pedestrian accident reconstructions carried out using multi-body pedestrian and car models. The results from the FE head model were compared with injuries reported in the database. Maximum principal strain was chosen as the injury indicator. After successful head injury predictions, the initial velocities were varied and as a result different peak angular velocities and accelerations were simulated. The results showed that increased peak change in angular velocity caused higher maximal principal strain in the brain and in consequence higher probability of Diffuse Axonal Injury (DAI), and Acute Subdural Haematoma (ASDH). A dramatic, three-fold increase in the strain levels in the brain was found when doubling the impact velocity. This paper presents work performed within the framework of a European Commission 6 th framework project (APROSYS).