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Poly(ethylene glycol)-containing hydrogel surfaces for antifouling applications in marine and freshwater environments

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Author: Ekblad, T. · Bergström, G. · Ederth, T. · Conlan, S.L. · Mutton, R. · Clare, A.S. · Wang, S. · Liu, Y. · Zhao, Q. · D'Souza, F. · Donnelly, G.T. · Willemsen, P.R. · Pettitt, M.E. · Callow, M.E. · Callow, J.A. · Liedberg, B.
Type:article
Date:2008
Institution: TNO Industrie en Techniek
Source:Biomacromolecules, 10, 9, 2775-2783
Identifier: 241043
Keywords: Materials · Antifouling properties · Artificial seawater · Balanus amphitrite · Biological evaluations · Coating thicknesses · Cobetia marinas · Composition changing · Degradation processes · Fouling organisms · Freshwater environments · Hydrogel coatings · Hydrogel surfaces · Marinobacter hydrocarbonoclasticus · Physico-chemical properties · Poly(ethylene glycol) · Pseudomonas fluorescens · Radical polymerizations · Ulva linza · ABS resins · Chemical stability · Colloids · Ethylene glycol · Free radical polymerization · Hydrogels · Infrared spectroscopy · Marine applications · Monomers · Polyethylene glycols · Polyethylene oxides · Polymer blends · Polymeric glass · Polystyrenes · Seawater · Silanes · Silicon · Spectroscopic analysis · Thickness measurement · Coatings · Gold · Macrogol · Silicon · Barnacle · Biodegradation · Biofouling · Chemical composition · Chemical parameters · Cobetia marina · Diatom · Ellipsometry · Environmental management · Fouling control · Fouling organism · Freshwater environment · Infrared spectroscopy · Marinobacter hydrocarbonoclasticus · Physical chemistry · Polymerization · Water analysis · Algae · Bacteria · Chemistry, Physical · Glass · Hydrogels · Marine Biology · Surface Properties · Thoracica · Ultraviolet Rays · Water Microbiology · Bacillariophyta · Navicula perminuta · Pseudomonas fluorescens

Abstract

This work describes the fabrication, characterization, and biological evaluation of a thin protein-resistant poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-based hydrogel coating for antifouling applications. The coating was fabricated by free-radical polymerization on silanized glass and silicon and on polystyrene-covered silicon and gold. The physicochemical properties of the coating were characterized by infrared spectroscopy, ellipsometry, and contact angle measurements. In particular, the chemical stability of the coating in artificial seawater was evaluated over a six-month period. These measurements indicated that the degradation process was slow under the test conditions chosen, with the coating thickness and composition changing only marginally over the period. The settlement behavior of a broad and diverse group of marine and freshwater fouling organisms was evaluated. The tested organisms were barnacle larvae (Balanus amphitrite), algal zoospores (Ulva linza), diatoms (Navicula perminuta), and three bacteria species (Cobetia marina, Marinobacter hydrocarbonoclasticus, and Pseudomonas fluorescens). The biological results showed that the hydrogel coating exhibited excellent antifouling properties with respect to settlement and removal. © 2008 American Chemical Society.