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The effect of the undigested fraction of maize products on the activity and composition of the microbiota determined in a dynamic in vitro model of the human proximal large intestine.

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Author: Maathuis, A. · Hoffman, A. · Evans, A. · Sanders, L. · Venema, K.
Type:article
Date:2009
Institution: TNO Kwaliteit van Leven
Source:Journal of the American College of Nutrition, 6, 28, 657-666
Identifier: 409311
Keywords: Biology · Biomedical Research · article · Bifidobacterium · digestion · human · large intestine · maize · metabolism · metagenome · microbiology · physiology · Bifidobacterium · Digestion · Humans · Intestine, Large · Metagenome · Zea mays

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of 5 newly developed maize-based fibers on the activity and composition of the microbiota in the colon. The fibers tested were glucose-based and had variable structures, including 2 resistant starch preparations, soluble corn fiber, pullulan, and soluble fiber dextrin. METHODS: The fibers were predigested, mono- and disaccharides were removed, and the residual polymer was used to assess the production of microbial metabolites and changes in composition of the microbiota using a dynamic, validated, in vitro model of the large intestine. RESULTS: Microbial metabolite analysis showed an increase in short-chain fatty acids for all fibers, with varying levels of butyrate production for each fiber. The greatest increase of butyrate, both in terms of absolute amounts and as a proportion of total short-chain fatty acids, was observed for pullulan. All fibers also reduced toxic metabolites from protein fermentation compared to the poorly fermentable control (cellulose). Microbial composition was assessed using a micro-array platform. All fibers showed increases of bifidobacteria and some Lactobacillus species, although different species were stimulated by different fibers. Pullulan showed the largest increase of bifidobacteria. CONCLUSIONS: All fibers showed prebiotic activity in terms of increases in growth and/or activity of beneficial microbes. In addition, compared to the control, health-promoting metabolites were produced in higher amounts, while putrefactive metabolites were reduced for all fibers. The importance of the findings lies in the fact that the newly developed, maize-based fibers shift the intestinal environment to a healthier milieu, with increased health-promoting metabolites and health-beneficial microbes.