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Determining VCE damage zones using the GAME correlations and explosion regions

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Author: Boot, H. · Voort, M.M. van der
Source:2013 AIChE Spring Meeting and 9th Global Congress on Process Safety, AIChE 2013, San Antonio, TX, USA, 28 April 2013
Identifier: 478192
ISBN: 9780816910755
Keywords: Ballistics · Deflagration · GAME · Multi Energy · Vapor cloud explosion · Defence Research · Defence, Safety and Security · Earth & Environment · UES - Urban Environment & Safety · EELS - Earth, Environmental and Life Sciences


Predicting potential consequences of Vapor Cloud Explosions (VCEs) has always been an important issue in safety assessments, because of the devastating damage that this phenomenon can create on (petro chemical) production sites. Although the TNO Multi-Energy method has been recognized as one of the best methods to predict blast overpressures of vapor cloud explosions, its application has been complicated by the required expert knowledge to choose a blast strength category and the congested fraction of the flammable cloud. In the GAME project (Guidance on Application of Multi-Energy, a contract research project for HSE), TNO already developed a quantitative method to derive the blast strength of VCEs, based on well-defined congestion area properties. Recently, this method has been extended and combined with dispersion models to derive a practical cloud coverage fraction, which is used to find the other important influencing parameter: the explosive mass of the congested part of the flammable cloud. This so-called "explosion regions" method can be used to determine the potential damage zones on a realistic site, with various potential sources of releases and multiple congestion areas or "receptors". The paper will give a full description of the calculation procedure used and provide potential benefits and drawbacks of its application.