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Development of a multi-body human model that predicts active and passive human behaviour

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Author: Meijer, R. · Hassel, E. van · Broos, J. · Elrofai, H. · Rooij, L. van · Hooijdonk, P. van
Source:International Research Council on the Biomechanics of Injury Conference, IRCOBI 2012, 12-14 September 2012, Dublin, Ireland
Identifier: 462691
Keywords: Traffic · human model · active behaviour · pre-crash loading · multi-body dynamics · Industrial Innovation · Mechatronics, Mechanics & Materials · IVS - Integrated Vehicle Safety · TS - Technical Sciences


Active safety systems that start to act moments before the crash might be capable of anticipating the occupant’s position, either by correcting it, or by taking the out-of-position into account. To develop such active safety systems, computer simulations of the occupant’s pre-crash behaviour are very valuable in determining system performance. The objective of this study was to develop a run-time efficient computer human model that can simulate active as well as passive human behaviour such that it can be used to simulate the pre-crash and in-crash phase in one simulation run. The so-called active human model is a multi-body model, and is based on earlier developed human models in MADYMO and techniques for controlled active behaviour. The model’s responses in a 1 g car braking, 15 g frontal, 7 g lateral and 3.6 g rear impact were compared to that of the volunteers. It was concluded that the active human model with controlled active behaviour with co-contraction of the neck muscles better predicts the behaviour of the volunteers than without co-contraction or completely passive behaviour. With the best fitting co-contraction levels and reaction times the maximum deviation from the average peak responses of the volunteers was at most 20%.