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Bestimmung der blut/serum-verhältnisse verschiedener forensisch relevanter analyten in authentischen proben [Determination of blood/serum ratios of different forensically relevant analytes in authentic samples]

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Author: Jantos, R. · Schuhmacher, M. · Veldstra, J.L. · Bosker, W.M. · Klöpping-Ketelaars, I. · Touliou, K. · Sardi, G.M. · Brookhuis, K.A. · Ramaekers, J.G. · Mattern, R. · Skopp, G.
Source:Archiv fur Kriminologie, 5-6, 227, 188-203
Identifier: 434682
Keywords: Nutrition · Authentic samples · Blood/serum-ratio · Central nervous agents · Plasma protein binding · Life · PHS - Pharmacokinetics & Human Studies · EELS - Earth, Environmental and Life Sciences


For forensic toxicological investigations only whole blood, but no serum is often available. Pharmacokinetic data are helpful for interpreting the results, but most of these studies indicate serum or plasma concentrations. In order to obtain reliable conversion factors which also take intersubject variability into account, the blood/serum ratios (B/S) of oxycodone, morphine, fentanyl, hydromorphone, zopiclone, MDMA, dexamphetamine, alprazolam, risperidone and 9-hydroxyrisperidone were determined by LC-MS/MS using authentic samples. Blood and corresponding serum samples were obtained from driving studies performed with controlled or known dosages of the above drugs. The analytes were analysed in blood and serum and the following mean B/S ratios (relative standard deviations) were determined: oxycodone 1.48 (8.19 %); morphine 1.03 (3.59 %); fentanyl 0.87 (13.9 %); hydromorphone 1.04 (8.11 %); zopiclone 0.89 (16.1 %); MDMA 1.19 (8.04 %); dexamphetamine 0.89 (10.9 %); alprazolam 0.81 (5.84 %); risperidone 0.65 (7.52 %); 9-hydroxyrisperidone 0.73 (12.3%). These mean values are largely in line with those reported in the literature. The B/S ratios did not appear to depend on partition coefficients, whereas there was strong evidence that B/S ratios decreased with increasing plasma protein binding.