The relationship of preterm birth to health-related quality of life (HRQoL) was examined for children aged 1 to 4 years. Three gestational age groups with a NICU history were selected, <32 weeks (n=65), 32 to 36 weeks (n=41),≥37 weeks (n=54), and a reference group from the open population (n=50). The main instrument was the TNO-AZL Preschool Quality Of Life (TAPQOL) questionnaire, which was completed by the parents. In addition, other outcome measures obtained from parents on neonatologists were investigated. Children born <32 weeks had significantly lower HRQoL than the reference group in the scales for lungs, stomach, eating disorders, motor functioning, communication, and anxiety. Parental feelings towards the child were related to the child's HRQoL. We found differences between the neonatologist' and parents' perceptions of the children's situation, which can be clinical consequences (e.g. different opinions about what needed treatment). Neonatal intensive care after birth as HRQoL implications for all children, particularly in children born at >32 weeks of gestation.