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Deposition of atmospheric trace elements into the North Sea: Coastal, ship, platform measurements and model predictions

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Author: Injuk, J. · Grieken, R. van · Leeuw, G. de
Type:article
Date:1998
Institution: TNO Fysisch en Elektronisch Laboratorium
Source:Atmospheric Environment, 17, 32, 3011-3025
Identifier: 95090
doi: DOI:10.1016/S1352-2310(97)00497-4
Keywords: Physics · Aerosols · Deposition fluxes · Heavy metals · North Sea · Atmospheric aerosols · Atmospheric chemistry · Atmospheric composition · Coastal zones · Computational methods · Heavy metals · Mathematical models · Production platforms · Ships · Trace analysis · Trace elements · Dry deposition · Air pollution · North Sea

Abstract

The atmospheric input of up to 16 trace and other elements into the North Sea is further assessed from aerosol concentrations measured at a coastal station in Belgium, on ships during two cruises, and on a platform, in the years 1992 - 1994. The Slinn and Slinn model is used to calculate the dry deposition from the measured aerosol concentrations. The total (dry and wet) deposition into the North Sea environment is estimated to be (in tonnes per year): 560 for V, 1300 for Cr, 650 for Ni, 690 for Cu, 3500 for Zn and 1970 for Pb. The 'giant' particles dominate the fluxes. The atmospheric contribution to the total input into the North Sea, including riverine inputs and direct discharges, are estimated to be 28% for Cu, 29% for Zn and 57% for Pb. The inputs estimated from the experimental data are compared with results from a model applied for the same area and period. The experimental and model results agree within 56%, which is considered as 'satisfactory' in view of both the experimental and the model uncertainties.