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The effect of plant sterols and different low doses of omega-3 fatty acids from fish oil on lipoprotein subclasses

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Author: Jacobs, D.M. · Mihaleva, V.V. · Schalkwijk, D.B. van · Graaf, A.A. de · Vervoort, J. · Dorsten, F.A. van · Ras, R.T. · Demonty, I. · Trautwein, E.A. · Duynhoven, J. van
Type:article
Date:2015
Source:Molecular Nutrition and Food Research, 9, 59, 1745-1757
Identifier: 528432
doi: doi:10.1002/mnfr.201500152
Keywords: Biology · Lipoprotein · N-3 fatty acids · NMR · Particle Profiler · Plant sterols · Food and Nutrition · Healthy Living · Life · MSB - Microbiology and Systems Biology · ELSS - Earth, Life and Social Sciences

Abstract

Scope: Consumption of a low-fat spread enriched with plant sterols (PS) and different low doses (<2 g/day) of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) from fish oil reduces serum triglycerides (TGs) and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-Chol) and thus beneficially affects two blood lipid risk factors. Yet, their combined effects on TG and Chol in various lipoprotein subclasses have been investigated to a limited extent. Methods and results: In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel study, we determined TG and Chol in 13 LP subclasses in fasting serum of 282 hypercholesterolemic subjects, who consumed either a placebo spread or one of the four spreads containing PS (2.5 g/day) and EPA+DHA (0.0, 0.9, 1.3, and 1.8 g/day) for 4 weeks. After PS treatment, total LDL-Chol was reduced, which was not further changed by EPA+DHA. No shift in the LDL-Chol particle distribution was observed. The addition of EPA+DHA to PS dose-dependently reduced VLDL-Chol and VLDL-TG mainly in larger particles. Furthermore, the two highest doses of EPA+DHA increased Chol and TG in the larger HDL particles, while these concentrations were decreased in the smallest HDL particles. Conclusion: The consumption of a low-fat spread enriched with both PS and EPA+DHA induced shifts in the lipoprotein distribution that may provide additional cardiovascular benefits over PS consumption alone. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.