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Mood expression through parameterized functional behavior of robots

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Author: Xu, J. · Broekens, J. · Hindriks, K. · Neerincx, M.A.
Source:22nd IEEE International Symposium on Robot and Human Interactive Communication: "Living Together, Enjoying Together, and Working Together with Robots!", IEEE RO-MAN 2013, 26 August 2013 through 29 August 2013, Gyeongju
Identifier: 485021
doi: doi:10.1109/ROMAN.2013.6628534
ISBN: 9781479905072
Article number: 6628534
Keywords: Robotics · Information Society · Human · PCS - Perceptual and Cognitive Systems · BSS - Behavioural and Societal Sciences


Bodily expression of affect is crucial to human robot interaction. We distinguish between emotion and mood expression, and focus on mood expression. Bodily expression of an emotion is explicit behavior that typically interrupts ongoing functional behavior. Instead, bodily mood expression is integrated with functional behaviors without interrupting them. We propose a parameterized behavior model with specific behavior parameters for bodily mood expression. Robot mood controls pose and motion parameters, while those parameters modulate behavior appearance. We applied the model to two concrete behaviors - waving and pointing - of the NAO robot, and conducted a user study in which participants (N=24) were asked to design the expression of positive, neutral, and negative moods by modulating the parameters of the two behaviors. Results show that participants created different parameter settings corresponding with different moods, and the settings were generally consistent across participants. Various parameter settings were also found to be behavior-invariant. These findings suggest that our model and parameter set are promising for expressing moods in a variety of behaviors. © 2013 IEEE.