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Energy restriction early in life and colon carcinoma risk: Results of The Netherlands Cohort Study after 7.3 years of follow-up

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Author: Dirx, M.J.M. · Brandt, P.A. van den · Goldbohm, R.A. · Lumey, L.H.
Type:article
Date:2003
Source:Cancer, 1, 97, 46-55
Identifier: 236928
doi: doi:10.1002/cncr.11052
Keywords: Health · Food and Chemical Risk Analysis · Adolescence · Colon carcinoma · Early diet · Energy restriction · Famine · adult · aged · article · caloric restriction · cancer risk · cohort analysis · colon carcinoma · controlled study · economic aspect · employment · female · follow up · human · hunger · major clinical study · male · multivariate analysis · priority journal · questionnaire · risk assessment · risk factor · rural area · urban area · war · winter · Adolescent · Aged · Cohort Studies · Colonic Neoplasms · Diet · Energy Intake · Female · Follow-Up Studies · Humans · Incidence · Male · Middle Aged · Netherlands · Poverty · Questionnaires · Risk Factors

Abstract

BACKGROUND. This study evaluated the effects of severe undernutrition during adolescence and subsequent colon carcinoma risk. METHODS. The authors evaluated The Netherlands Cohort Study on Diet and Cancer (NLCS) among 62,573 women and 58,279 men aged 55-69 years at baseline. Information on diet and risk factors was collected by questionnaire in 1986. Additional information was collected concerning residence during the hunger winter (1944-1945), the World War II years (1940-1944), and father's employment status during the economic depression of 1932-1940, which were used as indicators of exposure. After 7.3 years of follow-up, 807 colon carcinoma cases (388 females and 419 males) were available for analysis. RESULTS. Multivariate analysis showed that both men and women who had lived in a western city in 1944-1945 had a decreased colon carcinoma risk (men: relative risk [RR] = 0.85, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.62-1.16; women: RR = 0.80, 95%CI = 0.59-1.09). No association between colon carcinoma risk and urban versus rural residence was found during the war years (1940-1944). Having an unemployed father during the economic depression (1932-1940) was also associated with a small decrease in colon carcinoma risk for men (RR = 0.90, 95% CI =0.62-1.31) and women (RR = 0.75, 95%CI 0.49-1.14). In subgroup analyses, a decreased colon carcinoma risk for men and women who were in their adolescent growth spurt and living in a western city during the hunger winter of 1944-1945 was noted (men: RR = 0.72, 95% CI = 0.31-1.65; women: RR = 0.88, 95% CI = 0.40-1.96). No associations were statistically significant because of the limited study size. CONCLUSIONS. In the current study, a weak inverse relation was found between energy restriction early in life and subsequent colon carcinoma risk for men and women. However, these findings need replication in a larger study. © 2003 American Cancer Society.