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User-centered design with illiterate persons: the case of the ATM user interface

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Author: Cremers, A.H.M. · Jong, J.G.M. de · Balken, J.S. van
Institution: TNO Defensie en Veiligheid
Source:11th International Conference on Computers Helping People with Special Needs, ICCHP 2008, 9-11 July 2008, Linz, Austria, 5105 LNCS, 713-720
Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics)
Identifier: 240997
doi: doi:10.1007/978-3-540-70540-6_104
ISBN: 9783540705390
Keywords: Automated teller machines · Avatar · Design method · Functional illiteracy · Icons · Participatory design · Speech · User-centered design · Asynchronous transfer mode · Computer networks · User interfaces · Internet protocols


One of the major challenges in current user interface research and development is the accommodation of diversity in users and contexts of use in order to improve the self-efficacy of citizens. A common banking service, which should be designed for diversity, is the Automated Teller Machine (ATM). This paper describes the various user-centered design techniques to involve the future users of an ATM for illiterate persons, and reports the results of applying the techniques to a group of six Dutch functional illiterate persons. First, it has resulted in a set of user requirements and promising redesign concepts for the current ATM, relating to hardware, functionality, order of actions, lay-out, interaction modalities, and the mental model of cash withdrawal. Second, it has provided insight into how user-centered design techniques should be applied to this specific, but heterogeneous, user group.