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Dairy products and pancreatic cancer risk: A pooled analysis of 14 cohort studies

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Author: Genkinger, J.M. · Wang, M. · Li, R. · Albanes, D. · Anderson, K.E. · Bernstein, L. · Brandt, P.A. van den · English, D.R. · Freudenheim, J.L. · Fuchs, C.S. · Gapstur, S.M. · Giles, G.G. · Goldbohm, R.A. · Håkansson, N. · Horn-Ross, P.L. · Koushik, A. · Marshal, J.R. · McCullough, M.L. · Miller, A.B. · Robien, K. · Rohan, T.E. · Schairer, C. · Silverman, D.T. · Stolzenberg-Solomon, R.Z. · Virtamo, J. · Willett, W.C. · Wolk, A. · Ziegler, R.G. · Smith-Warner, S.A.
Source:Annals of Oncology, 6, 25, 1106-1115
Identifier: 513343
doi: doi:10.1093/annonc/mdu019
Keywords: Health · Calcium intake · Dairy products · Pancreatic cancer · Pooled analysis · Vitamin D · Yoghurt · Adolescent · Adult · Aged · Body mass · Cancer risk · Cheese · Cohort analysis · Female · Food intake · Human · Ice cream · Major clinical study · Male · Milk · Pancreas adenocarcinoma · Risk assessment · Risk factor · Sex · Smoking · Very elderly · Vitamin intake · Healthy for Life · Healthy Living · Behavioural Changes · LS - Life Style · ELSS - Earth, Life and Social Sciences


Pancreatic cancer has few early symptoms, is usually diagnosed at late stages, and has a high case-fatality rate. Identifying modifiable risk factors is crucial to reducing pancreatic cancer morbidity and mortality. Prior studies have suggested that specific foods and nutrients, such as dairy products and constituents, may play a role in pancreatic carcinogenesis. In this pooled analysis of the primary data from 14 prospective cohort studies, 2212 incident pancreatic cancer cases were identified during follow-up among 862 680 individuals. Adjusting for smoking habits, personal history of diabetes, alcohol intake, body mass index (BMI), and energy intake, multivariable study-specific hazard ratios (MVHR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using the Cox proportional hazards models and then pooled using a random effects model. There was no association between total milk intake and pancreatic cancer risk (MVHR = 0.98, 95% CI = 0.82-1.18 comparing ≥500 with 1-69.9 g/day). Similarly, intakes of low-fat milk, whole milk, cheese, cottage cheese, yogurt, and icecream were not associated with pancreatic cancer risk. No statistically significant association was observed between dietary (MVHR = 0.96, 95% CI = 0.77-1.19) and total calcium (MVHR = 0.89, 95% CI = 0.71-1.12) intake and pancreatic cancer risk overall when comparing intakes ≥1300 with <500 mg/day. In addition, null associations were observed for dietary and total vitamin D intake and pancreatic cancer risk. Findings were consistent within sex, smoking status, and BMI strata or when the case definition was limited to pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Overall, these findings do not support the hypothesis that consumption of dairy foods, calcium, or vitamin D during adulthood is associated with pancreatic cancer risk. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved.