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Marker-referred movement measurement with grey-scale coordinate extraction for high-resolution real-time 3D at 100 Hz

Author: Furnée, E.H. · Jobbá, A. · Sabel, J.C. · Veenendaal, H.L.J. van · Martin, F. · Andriessen, D.C.W.G.
Publisher: SPIE
Place: Bellingham,WA
Institution: TNO Fysisch en Elektronisch Laboratorium
Source:Ultrahigh- and High-Speed Photography and Image-based Motion Measurement, 28 July 1997, San Diego, CA, USA, 357-369
Proceedings of SPIE
Identifier: 234174
doi: doi:10.1117/12.294548
Keywords: Physics · Animation · Coordinates · Location · Markers, embedded image processing · Markertracking · Motion analysis · Motion capture · Real-time · Wind turbines · Cameras · Computer graphics · Digital image storage · High speed photography · Image processing · Interfaces (computer) · Military photography · Coordinates · Grey-scale processing


A review of early history in photography highlights the origin of cinefilm as a scientific tool for image-based measurement of human and animal motion. The paper is concerned with scanned-area video sensors (CCD) and a computer interface for the real-time, high-resolution extraction of image coordinates of moving markers. Algorithms and implementations are reviewed for the estimation of marker midpoints. Two-valued (above-threshold) representations of the video signal, as well as grey-scale digitizing are discussed. Attainable resolutions and computational effort are presented. Distributed, per-camera processing is a new option, which uses an embedded microcomputer for image reduction to real-time marker midpoint data. Developments are discussed in 3-D camera calibration and in the real-time 3-D matching of marker images, essential in realtime 3-D reconstruction. Applications are in 3-D motion capture for animation and in motion analysis of wind turbine rotors.