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Development of atmospheric pressure CVD processes for highquality transparent conductive oxides

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Author: Graaf, A. de · Deelen, J. van · Poodt, P.W.G. · Mol, A.M.B. van · Spee, C.I.M.A. · Grob, F. · Kuypers, A.
Publisher: Elsevier
Institution: TNO Industrie en Techniek
Source:Inorganic and Nanostructured Photovoltaics - Symposium B at the E-MRS 2009 Spring Meeting, 7 June 2009 through 12 June 2009, Strasbourg. Conference code: 81832, 1, 2, 41-48
Energy Procedia
Identifier: 425174
Keywords: Electronics · chemical vapor deposition · CVD · conductive oxides · APCVD · surface chemistry · Mechatronics, Mechanics & Materials · TFT - Thin Film Technology; HOL - Holst · TS - Technical Sciences


For the past decade TNO has been involved in the research and development of atmospheric pressure CVD (APCVD) and plasma enhanced CVD (PECVD) processes for deposition of transparent conductive oxides (TCO), such as tin oxide and zinc oxide. It is shown that by combining precursor development, fundamental gas phase and surface chemistry studies, process optimization and modeling-based reactor design, the demanding product requirements and cost issues of different types of thin film PV can be met. Our studies on the APCVD deposition of SnO2:F reveal the influence of different types of precursors and process conditions on the transmittance, morphology and conductance of the film. It is shown that a high transmittance (80%) and low resistivity (4.0·10-4Ω·cm) film can be obtained in combination with an intrinsic surface structure that enhances the light trapping effect. © 2009 Published by Elsevier Ltd.