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Personalised nutrition: Status and perspectives

Author: Joost, H.G. · Gibney, M.J. · Cashman, K.D. · Görman, U. · Hesketh, J.E. · Mueller, M. · Ommen, B. van · Williams, C.M. · Mathers, J.C.
Type:article
Date:2007
Institution: TNO Kwaliteit van Leven
Source:British Journal of Nutrition, 1, 98, 26-31
Identifier: 240068
doi: doi:10.1017/S0007114507685195
Keywords: Biomedical Research · Disease risk · Nutrigenetics · Nutrigenomics · Nutritional recommendations · Acyltransferase · Glutathione transferase · Xenobiotic agent · Carcinogenesis · Cholesterol metabolism · Diabetes mellitus · Dietary intake · Environmental factor · Familial hyperlipemia · Food composition · Gene interaction · Gene mutation · Genetic counseling · Genetic heterogeneity · Genetic screening · Genetic variability · Genotype phenotype correlation · Hypercholesterolemia · Hypertension · Mental deficiency · Nonhuman · Nutrient supply · Nutrigenomics · Nutritional assessment · Nutritional status · Nutritional value · Risk benefit analysis · Risk factor · Risk reduction · Single nucleotide polymorphism · Chronic Disease · Food · Genotype · Humans · Models, Genetic · Nutrition Disorders · Nutrition Physiology · Nutritional Requirements · Research

Abstract

Personalised, genotype-based nutrition is a concept that links genotyping with specific nutritional advice in order to improve the prevention of nutrition-associated, chronic diseases. This review describes the current scientific basis of the concept and discusses its problems. There is convincing evidence that variant genes may indeed determine the biological response to nutrients. The effects of single-gene variants on risk or risk factor levels of a complex disease are, however, usually small and sometimes inconsistent. Thus, information on the effects of combinations of relevant gene variants appears to be required in order to improve the predictive precision of the genetic information. Furthermore, very few associations between genotype and response have been tested for causality in human intervention studies, and little is known about potential adverse effects of a genotype-derived intervention. These issues need to be addressed before genotyping can become an acceptable method to guide nutritional recommendations. © The Authors 2007.