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14-3-3 Isoforms and pattern formation during barley microspore embryogenesis

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Author: Maraschin, · Lamers, G.E.M. · Pater, · Spaink, H.P. · Wang, M.
Source:Journal of Experimental Botany, 384, 54, 1033-1043
Identifier: 280275
doi: doi:10.1093/jxb/erg098
Keywords: 14-3-3 · Androgenesis · Barley · Embryogenesis · Pattern formation · Antibodies · Antigen-antibody reactions · Cells · Embryo-like structures (ELS) · Plants (botany) · isoprotein · protein 14 3 3 · tyrosine 3 monooxygenase · biosynthesis · cell differentiation · fertility · growth, development and aging · metabolism · physiology · plant · plant seed · prenatal development · signal transduction · time · Western blotting · 14-3-3 Proteins · Blotting, Western · Cell Differentiation · Fertility · Hordeum · Plant Shoots · Protein Isoforms · Seeds · Signal Transduction · Time Factors · Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase · Animalia · Hordeum · Hordeum vulgare · Hordeum vulgare subsp. vulgare · Spermatophyta · Staphylococcus phage 3A


The members of the 14-3-3 isoform family have been shown to be developmentally regulated during animal embryogenesis, where they take part in cell differentiation processes. 14-3-3 isoform-specific expression patterns were studied in plant embryogenic processes, using barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) microspore embryogenesis as a model system. After embryogenesis induction by stress, microspores with enlarged morphology showed higher viability than non-enlarged ones. Following microspore culture, cell division was only observed among the enlarged microspores. Western blot and immunolocalization of three barley 14-3-3 isoforms, 14-3-3A, 14-3-3B and 14-3-3C were carried out using isoform-specific antibodies. The level of 14-3-3C protein was higher in enlarged microspores than in non-enlarged ones. A processed form of 14-3-3A was associated with the death pathway of the non-enlarged microspores. In the early embryogenesis stage, 14-3-3 subcellular localization differed among dividing and non-dividing microspores and the microspore-derived multicellular structures showed a polarized expression pattern of 14-3-3C and a higher 14-3-3A signal in epidermis primordia. In the late embryogenesis stage, 14-3-3C was specifically expressed underneath the L<sub>1</sub> layer of the shoot apical meristem and in the scutellum of embryo-like structures (ELSs). 14-3-3C was also expressed in the scutellum and underneath the L<sub>1</sub> layer of the shoot apical meristem of 21 d after pollination (DAP) zygotic embryos. These results reveal that 14-3-3A processing and 14-3-3C isoform tissue-specific expression are closely related to cell fate and initiation of specific cell type differentiation, providing a new insight into the study of 14-3-3 proteins in plant embryogenesis. Chemicals/CAS: protein 14 3 3, 136047-16-0; tyrosine 3 monooxygenase, 9036-22-0; 14-3-3 Proteins; Protein Isoforms; Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase, EC