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The insulin resistance phenotype (muscle or liver) interacts with the type of diet to determine changes in disposition index after 2 years of intervention: the CORDIOPREV-DIAB randomised clinical trial

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Author: Blanco-Rojo, R. · Alcala-Diaz, J.F. · Wopereis, S. · Perez-Martinez, P. · Quintana-Navarro, G.M. · Marin, C. · Ordovas, J.M. · Ommen, B. van · Perez-Jimenez, F. · Delgado-Lista, J. · Lopez-Miranda, J.
Type:article
Date:2016
Source:Diabetologia, 1, 59, 67-76
Identifier: 530288
doi: doi:10.1007/s00125-015-3776-4
Keywords: Biology · Beta cell function · Dietary intervention · Insulin resistance · Low-fat diet · Mediterranean diet · Biomedical Innovation · Healthy Living · Life · MSB - Microbiology and Systems Biology · ELSS - Earth, Life and Social Sciences

Abstract

Aims/hypothesis: The aim of the study was to determine whether basal insulin resistance (IR) phenotype (muscle and/or liver) determines the effect of long-term consumption of a Mediterranean diet or a low-fat diet on tissue-specific IR and beta cell function. Methods: The study was performed in 642 patients included in The effect of an olive oil rich Mediterranean diet on type 2 diabetes mellitus risk and incidence study (CORDIOPREV-DIAB). A total of 327 patients were randomised to a Mediterranean diet (35% fat; 22% from monounsaturated fatty acids) and 315 to a low-fat diet (<28% fat). At baseline, the patients were classified into four phenotypes according to the type of IR: (1) no IR; (2) muscle IR; (3) liver IR; (4) muscle + liver IR. The hepatic insulin resistance index (HIRI), muscular insulin sensitivity index (MISI) and disposition index were analysed at baseline and after 2 years of follow-up. Results: At baseline, 322 patients presented no IR, 106 presented muscle IR, 109 presented liver IR, and 105 presented muscle + liver IR. With both dietary interventions, HIRI decreased in all patients (p < 0.001) and MISI increased in muscle IR and muscle + liver IR patients (p < 0.01). Long-term intake of the Mediterranean diet increased the disposition index and insulinogenic index in the muscle IR patients (p = 0.042 and p = 0.044, respectively) and the disposition index in the muscle + liver IR patients (p = 0.048), whereas the low-fat diet increased the disposition index in the liver IR patients (p = 0.017). Conclusions/interpretation: Although both diets improve insulin sensitivity, there are differences based on basal IR phenotypes. Moreover, according to insulinogenic and disposition index data, a low-fat diet might be more beneficial to patients with liver IR, whereas patients with muscle IR and muscle + liver IR might benefit more from a Mediterranean diet. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00924937 Funding: The study was supported by the Ministerio de Economia y Competitividad (AGL2012/39615) and by the Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovacion (PIE14/00005 and PI13/00023) © 2015, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Chemicals/CAS: insulin, 9004-10-8; olive oil, 8001-25-0