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The curious out-of-plane conductivity of PEDOT:PSS

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Author: Ruit, K. van de · Katsouras, I. · Bollen, D. · Van Mol, T. · Janssen, R.A.J. · Leeuw, D.M. de · Kemerink, M.
Type:article
Date:2013
Source:Advanced Functional Materials, 46, 23, 5787-5793
Identifier: 485655
doi: doi:10.1002/adfm.201301175
Keywords: Materials · Charge transport · Conducting polymers · Organic electronics · Diameter dependent · High boiling solvents · Orders of magnitude · Percolating clusters · Spin-coated films · Strong dependences · Transparent conductors · Anisotropy · Carrier transport · Charge transfer · Light emitting diodes · Photovoltaic cells · Thin films · High Tech Systems & Materials · Industrial Innovation · Mechatronics, Mechanics & Materials · HOL - Holst · TS - Technical Sciences

Abstract

For its application as transparent conductor in light-emitting diodes and photovoltaic cells, both the in-plane and out-of-plane conductivity of PEDOT:PSS are important. However, studies into the conductivity of PEDOT:PSS rarely address the out-of-plane conductivity and those that do, report widely varying results. Here a systematic study of the out-of-plane charge transport in thin films of PEDOT:PSS with varying PSS content is presented. To this end, the PEDOT:PSS is enclosed in small interconnects between metallic contacts. An unexpected, but strong dependence of the conductivity on interconnect diameter is observed for PEDOT:PSS formulations without high boiling solvent. The change in conductivity correlates with a diameter dependent change in PEDOT:PSS layer thickness. It is suggested that the order of magnitude variation in out-of-plane conductivity with only a 3-4-fold layer thickness variation can quantitatively be explained on basis of a percolating cluster model. Reported measurements of the anisotropy in the conductivity of spin coated films of PEDOT:PSS vary widely. A systematic study of the out-of-plane charge transport in thin films of PEDOT:PSS with varying PSS content is presented. It is suggested that the orders of magnitude change in anisotropy can be quantitatively explained on the basis of a percolating cluster model. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.