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Industrial high-rate (~14 nm/s) deposition of low resistive and transparent ZnOx:Al films on glass

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Author: Illiberi, A. · Kniknie, B. · Deelen, J. van · Steijvers, H.L.A.H. · Habets, D. · Simons, P.J.P.M. · Janssen, A.C. · Beckers, E.H.A.
Type:article
Date:2011
Source:Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, 7, 95, 1955-1959
Identifier: 429694
Keywords: Electronics · Aluminum doped zinc oxide · Atmospheric pressure chemical-vapor-deposition · Deposition rate · Thin film solar cells · Transparent conductive oxide · a-Si:H · Al films · Aluminum-doped zinc oxide · Aluminum-doped ZnO · Atomic force microscopes · Crystalline quality · Crystallinities · CVD process · Deposited films · Diethylzinc · Electrical and optical properties · Four point probe · High deposition rates · High rate · High throughput · In-line · Initial efficiency · Metalorganic chemical vapor deposition · Preferential orientation · Thin film solar cells · Transparent conductive oxides · Trimethylaluminium · Visible range · ZnO · Aluminum · Atmospheric chemistry · Atmospheric pressure · Atmospherics · Atomic force microscopy · Conductive films · Crystal atomic structure · Deposition · Deposition rates · Doping (additives) · Electric properties · Glass · Industry · Metallic films · Metallorganic chemical vapor deposition · Nanostructured materials · Optical properties · Solar cells · Thin films · Vapor deposition · Vapors · X ray diffraction · Zinc · Zinc oxide · Aluminum coatings · Mechatronics, Mechanics & Materials ; Fluid Mechanics Chemistry & Energetics · TFT - Thin Film Technology ; PMC - Process Modelling & Control ; EAM - Equipment for Additive Manufacturing · TS - Technical Sciences

Abstract

Aluminum doped ZnOx (ZnOx:Al) films have been deposited on glass in an in-line industrial-type reactor by a metalorganic chemical vapor deposition process at atmospheric pressure. Tertiary-butanol has been used as oxidant for diethylzinc and trimethylaluminium as dopant gas. ZnOx:Al films can be grown at very high deposition rates of ~14 nm/s for a substrate speed from 150 to 500 mm/min. The electrical, structural (crystallinity and morphology) and optical properties of the deposited films have been characterized by using Hall, four point probe, X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscope and spectrophotometer, respectively. All the films have c-axis, (002) preferential orientation and good crystalline quality. ZnO x:Al films are highly conductive (R<9 O/sq, for a film thickness above 1300 nm) and transparent in the visible range (>80%). These results show that ZnOx:Al films with good electrical and optical properties can be grown with a high throughput industrial CVD process at atmospheric pressure. First pin a-Si:H solar cells have been deposited on this material, with initial efficiency approaching 8%. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.