A framework is introduced to develop the theory of the Adjoint Method for models including both continuous and discrete dynamics. The basis of this framework consists of the class of impulsive linear dynamical systems. It allows extension of the Adjoint Method to more general models that include multirate subsystems, or non-periodic discrete events. Both the deterministic and the stochastic case are considered and the theory is applied to study the effect of uplinks on the performance of a guidance system. Copyright © 2009 by TNO The Netherlands and DSTO Australia.